Functionalism (architecture)

functionalismfunctionalistfunctionalisticfunctionalist stylefunctionalist architecturefunctionalfunctionalism architecturefunctionalityfunkisDanish Functionalism
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building.wikipedia
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Form follows function

utilitarianform following functionbeauty comes from the use
In 1896, Chicago architect Louis Sullivan coined the phrase 'form ever follows function'.
The architect Louis Sullivan coined the maxim, although it is often incorrectly attributed to the sculptor Horatio Greenough (1805–1852), whose thinking mostly predates the later functionalist approach to architecture.

Brno

BrünnBrno, Czech RepublicBrunn
The former Czechoslovakia was an early adopter of the functionalist style, with notable examples such as Villa Tugendhat in Brno, designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1928, Villa Müller in Prague, designed by Adolf Loos in 1930, and the majority of the town of Zlin, developed by the Bata shoe company as a factory town in the 1920s and designed by Le Corbusier's student František Lydie Gahura.
Another architectural monument of Brno is the functionalist Villa Tugendhat which has been included on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

Villa Tugendhat

Tugendhat HouseTugendhat Villa in Brno
The former Czechoslovakia was an early adopter of the functionalist style, with notable examples such as Villa Tugendhat in Brno, designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1928, Villa Müller in Prague, designed by Adolf Loos in 1930, and the majority of the town of Zlin, developed by the Bata shoe company as a factory town in the 1920s and designed by Le Corbusier's student František Lydie Gahura.
Mies' design principle of "less is more" and emphasis on functional amenities created a fine example of early functionalism architecture, a groundbreaking new vision in building design at the time.

Stockholm Exhibition (1930)

Stockholm ExhibitionStockholm International Exhibition (1930)1930 Stockholm Exhibition
In Scandinavia (including Finland), the international movement and ideas of modernist architecture became widely known among architects at the 1930 Stockholm Exhibition, under the guidance of director and Swedish architect Gunnar Asplund.
The Stockholm Exhibition (in Swedish, Stockholmsutställningen) was an exhibition held in 1930 in Stockholm, Sweden, that had a great impact on the architectural styles known as Functionalism and International Style.

Arne Jacobsen

Jacobsen
Some of the most active architects working internationally with this style, includes Edvard Heiberg, Arne Jacobsen and Alvar Aalto. Vilhelm Lauritzen, Arne Jacobsen and C.F. Møller were among the most active and influential Danish architects of the new functionalist ideas and Arne Jacobsen, Poul Kjærholm, Kaare Klint, and others, extended the new approach to design in general, most notably furniture which evolved to become Danish modern.
He is remembered for his contribution to architectural Functionalism as well as for the worldwide success he enjoyed with simple but effective chair designs.

Acceptera

acceptera!
Enthusiastic architects collected their ideas and inspirations in the manifesto acceptera! and in the years thereafter, a functionalist architecture emerged throughout Scandinavia.
Claiming that Swedish “building-art” (byggnadskonst) has failed to keep pace with the revolutionary social and technological change sweeping Europe in the early 20th century, the authors argue that the production of housing and consumer goods must embrace a functionalist orientation in order to meet the particular cultural and material needs of both modern society and the modern individual.

Danish modern

Danish-modernmodern Danish furniture designmodern furniture design
Vilhelm Lauritzen, Arne Jacobsen and C.F. Møller were among the most active and influential Danish architects of the new functionalist ideas and Arne Jacobsen, Poul Kjærholm, Kaare Klint, and others, extended the new approach to design in general, most notably furniture which evolved to become Danish modern.
Adopting the Functionalist trend of abandoning ornamentation in favour of form, he nonetheless maintained the warmth and beauty inherent in traditional Danish cabinet making, as well as high-quality craftsmanship and materials.

Hostrups Have

m. residential compound of Hostrups Have in Copenhagen.
Hostrups Have (lit. "Hostrup's Garden") is a famous functionalist housing estate and associated green space located at the corner of Falkoner Allé and Rolighedsvej in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aarhus University

University of AarhusÅrhus UniversityAarhus
Fine examples of Danish functionalist architecture are the now listed Kastrup Airport 1939 terminal by Vilhelm Lauritzen, Aarhus University (by C. F. Møller et al.) and Aarhus City Hall (by Arne Jacobsen et al.), all including furniture and lamps specially designed for these buildings in the functionalist spirit.
Since 1939, C. F. Møller Architects has been responsible for the architectural design of Aarhus University in accordance with the original functionalist design key, perhaps best exemplified by the characteristic yellow brick and tile.

Postmodern architecture

postmodernPostmodernismpost-modern
The position of postmodern architect Peter Eisenman is based on a user-hostile theoretical basis and even more extreme: "I don't do function."
The functional and formalized shapes and spaces of the modernist style are replaced by diverse aesthetics: styles collide, form is adopted for its own sake, and new ways of viewing familiar styles and space abound.

Finland

FinnishFINRepublic of Finland
This new functionalist architecture had the strongest impact in Czechoslovakia, Germany, Poland, the USSR and the Netherlands, and from the 1930s also in Scandinavia and Finland.
Finnish architecture is famous around the world, and has contributed significantly to several styles internationally, such as Jugendstil (or Art Nouveau), Nordic Classicism and Functionalism.

Vilhelm Lauritzen

Vilhelm Lauritzen, Arne Jacobsen and C.F. Møller were among the most active and influential Danish architects of the new functionalist ideas and Arne Jacobsen, Poul Kjærholm, Kaare Klint, and others, extended the new approach to design in general, most notably furniture which evolved to become Danish modern.
Towards the end of the decade he travelled in Central Europe and became acquainted with the latest trends in Functionalist architecture with its technical and structural innovations.

ADGB Trade Union School

Bundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen GewerkschaftsbundesBundesschule des Allgemeinen Deutschen Gewerkschaftsbundes (ADGB Trade Union School)
It is a textbook example of Bauhaus functionalist architecture, both in the finished product and in the analytical and collaborative approach used develop the design and complete the project.

Gunnar Asplund

Erik Gunnar AsplundAsplundE.G. Asplund
In Scandinavia (including Finland), the international movement and ideas of modernist architecture became widely known among architects at the 1930 Stockholm Exhibition, under the guidance of director and Swedish architect Gunnar Asplund.
Another important work is the extension of the Gothenburg Courthouse Extension building which Asplund started on 1913 and finished 1937 - it shows his transformation from neo-classical to functionalist architect, a transformation in parallel with other European modernists like Erich Mendelsohn.

Södra Ängby

The residential area of Södra Ängby in western Stockholm, Sweden, blended a functionalist or international style with garden city ideals.
Södra Ängby is a residential area blending functionalism with garden city ideals, located in western Stockholm, Sweden, forming part of the Bromma borough.

Stockholm

Stockholm, SwedenStockholm Citycity of Stockholm
The residential area of Södra Ängby in western Stockholm, Sweden, blended a functionalist or international style with garden city ideals.
However, in many other parts of Stockholm (such as in Gamla stan, Södermalm, Östermalm, Kungsholmen and Vasastan), many "old" buildings, blocks and streets built before the modernism and functionalism movements took off in Sweden (around 1930–35) survived this era of demolition.

Constructivist architecture

constructivistConstructivismconstructivist style
In Russia and the former Soviet Union, functionalism was known as Constructivist architecture, and was the dominant style for major building projects between 1918 and 1932.
This group had much in common with Weimar Germany's Functionalism, such as the housing projects of Ernst May.

Gdynia

GotenhafenGdynia, PolandGdingen
Probably the most outstanding work of Polish functionalist architecture is the entire city of Gdynia, modern Polish seaport established 1926.
The city also holds many examples of early 20th-century architecture, especially monumentalism and early functionalism, and modernism.

International Style (architecture)

International StyleInternationalInternational-style
The residential area of Södra Ängby in western Stockholm, Sweden, blended a functionalist or international style with garden city ideals.
In Europe the modern movement in architecture had been called Functionalism or Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity), L'Esprit Nouveau, or simply Modernism and was very much concerned with the coming together of a new architectural form and social reform, creating a more open and transparent society.

František Lydie Gahura

The former Czechoslovakia was an early adopter of the functionalist style, with notable examples such as Villa Tugendhat in Brno, designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1928, Villa Müller in Prague, designed by Adolf Loos in 1930, and the majority of the town of Zlin, developed by the Bata shoe company as a factory town in the 1920s and designed by Le Corbusier's student František Lydie Gahura.
It is the most valuable building of the Zlín functionalism.

Tomas Bata Memorial

Thomas Bata Memorial
Architectural highlights of the city are e.g. the Villa of Tomáš Baťa, Baťa’s Hospital, Tomas Bata Memorial, The Grand Cinema or Baťa's Skyscraper.
Thomas Bata Memorial (Czech: Památník Tomáše Bati) is functionalist building in Zlín, Czech Republic built in 1933.

Póvoa de Varzim Bullfighting Arena

Póvoa de Varzim BullringBullfighting Arena
It was built using functionalist architecture with a tendency to geometrical artistic expression.

Modern architecture

modernistModernModernism
This principle is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern architecture, as it is less self-evident than it first appears.
Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel and reinforced concrete; the idea that form should follow function (→functionalism); an embrace of minimalism; and a rejection of ornament.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
Between World Wars I and II, Functionalism, with its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style in the newly established Czechoslovak Republic.

Erik Bryggman

Some of the most prolific and notable architects in Finland, working in the funkis style, includes Alvar Aalto and Erik Bryggman who were both engaged from the very start in the 1930s.
His two most famous individual works are the extension to the library of Åbo Akademi University, Turku (1935), designed in a more strict Functionalism style, and the Resurrection Chapel (1941, completed during the wartime) in the Turku cemetery, which represents a mature synthesis of Bryggman's architecture, moving towards organic forms, and creating a dialogue with the surrounding landscape.