A report on Fungus

Fungal cell cycle showing Dikaryons typical of Higher Fungi
Omphalotus nidiformis, a bioluminescent mushroom
Bracket fungi on a tree stump
In 1729, Pier Antonio Micheli first published descriptions of fungi.
Armillaria solidipes
Mold growth covering a decaying peach. The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart over a period of six days.
Polyporus squamosus
The 8-spore asci of Morchella elata, viewed with phase contrast microscopy
The bird's nest fungus Cyathus stercoreus
Prototaxites milwaukeensis (Penhallow, 1908)—a Middle Devonian fungus from Wisconsin
Main groups of fungi
Arbuscular mycorrhiza seen under microscope. Flax root cortical cells containing paired arbuscules.
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
A pin mold decomposing a peach
The dark filaments are hyphae of the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala in the intercellular spaces of tall fescue leaf sheath tissue
The lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, a symbiosis of fungal, algal, and cyanobacterial species
The plant pathogen Puccinia magellanicum (calafate rust) causes the defect known as witch's broom, seen here on a barberry shrub in Chile.
Gram stain of Candida albicans from a vaginal swab from a woman with candidiasis, showing hyphae, and chlamydospores, which are 2–4 µm in diameter.
Ergotamine, a major mycotoxin produced by Claviceps species, which if ingested can cause gangrene, convulsions, and hallucinations
Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells shown with DIC microscopy
The mold Penicillium rubens was the source of penicillin G.
A selection of edible mushrooms eaten in Asia
Stilton cheese veined with Penicillium roqueforti
Amanita phalloides accounts for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide. It sometimes lacks the greenish color seen here.
Grasshoppers killed by Beauveria bassiana

Any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

- Fungus

273 related topics with Alpha



27 links

Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

Green algae from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904.
A variaty of fungi species
Dicksonia antarctica, a species of tree fern
A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Range of pangaea glossopteris.
The leaf is usually the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.
There is no photosynthesis in deciduous leaves in autumn.
Plant cell structure
The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.
Mechanical harvest of oats.
Melocactus plants being used as medicine.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill
A rose espalier at Niedernhall in Germany.
Capitals of ancient Egyptian columns decorated to resemble papyrus plants. (at Luxor, Egypt)
Barbara McClintock (1902–1992) was a pioneering cytogeneticist who used maize (corn) to study the mechanism of inheritance of traits.
Musk Thistle are invasive species in texas.

Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and included algae and fungi; however, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria).


28 links

A member of the genus Ophiocordyceps which is parasitic on arthropods. Note the elongated stromata. Species unknown, perhaps Ophiocordyceps caloceroides.
Ascomycete life cycle
The "candlesnuff fungus" in its asexual state, Xylaria hypoxylon
The ascocarp of a morel contains numerous apothecia.
Hypomyces completus on culture medium
Ascus of Hypocrea virens with eight two-celled Ascospores
Unitunicate-inoperculate Asci of Hypomyces chrysospermus
Diagram of an apothecium (the typical cup-like reproductive structure of Ascomycetes) showing sterile tissues as well as developing and mature asci.
Stilton cheese veined with Penicillium roqueforti

Ascomycota is a phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, forms the subkingdom Dikarya.

Spores produced in a sporic life cycle.


21 links

Unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

Unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.

Spores produced in a sporic life cycle.
Fresh snow partially covers rough-stalked feather-moss (Brachythecium rutabulum), growing on a thinned hybrid black poplar (Populus x canadensis). The last stage of the moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible before dispersion of their spores: the calyptra (1) is still attached to the capsule (3). The tops of the gametophytes (2) can be discerned as well. Inset shows the surrounding, black poplars growing on sandy loam on the bank of a kolk, with the detail area marked.
Asci of Morchella elata, containing ascospores
In plants, microspores, and in some cases megaspores, are formed from all four products of meiosis.
In contrast, in many seed plants and heterosporous ferns, only a single product of meiosis will become a megaspore (macrospore), with the rest degenerating.
Fossil plant spores (Scylaspora) from Silurian deposits of Sweden.
Tricolpate pollen of Ricinus
Spores of the moss Bartramia ithyphylla. (microscopic view, 400x)
Dehisced fern sporangia. (microscopic view, no spores are visible)
Spores and elaters from a horsetail. (Equisetum, microscopic view)
Fruit mold with spores and distinguishable cellular growth. (2000x)
Spore clusters, formed inside sporangia of the slime mold Reticularia olivacea, from pine forests of eastern Ukraine.
Internal surface of the peridium of the slime mold Tubifera dudkae with spores.

Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.


25 links

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

The endomembrane system and its components
Simplified structure of a mitochondrion
Longitudinal section through the flagellum of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Structure of a typical animal cell
Structure of a typical plant cell
Fungal Hyphae cells: 1 – hyphal wall, 2 – septum, 3 – mitochondrion, 4 – vacuole, 5 – ergosterol crystal, 6 – ribosome, 7 – nucleus, 8 – endoplasmic reticulum, 9 – lipid body, 10 – plasma membrane, 11 – spitzenkörper, 12 – Golgi apparatus
This diagram illustrates the twofold cost of sex. If each individual were to contribute the same number of offspring (two), (a) the sexual population remains the same size each generation, where the (b) asexual population doubles in size each generation.
Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing a view of the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
One hypothesis of eukaryotic relationships – the Opisthokonta group includes both animals (Metazoa) and fungi, plants (Plantae) are placed in Archaeplastida.
A pie chart of described eukaryote species (except for Excavata), together with a tree showing possible relationships between the groups
The three-domains tree and the Eocyte hypothesis
Phylogenetic tree showing a possible relationship between the eukaryotes and other forms of life; eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue
Eocyte tree.
Diagram of the origin of life with the Eukaryotes appearing early, not derived from Prokaryotes, as proposed by Richard Egel in 2012. This view implies that the UCA was relatively large and complex.

Animals, plants, and fungi are the most familiar eukaryotes; other eukaryotes are sometimes called protists.


28 links

Bacteria (singular bacterium, common noun bacteria) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell.

Bacteria (singular bacterium, common noun bacteria) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell.

Rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis
Phylogenetic tree of Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya. The vertical line at bottom represents the last universal common ancestor.
Bacteria display many cell morphologies and arrangements
The range of sizes shown by prokaryotes (Bacteria), relative to those of other organisms and biomolecules.
Structure and contents of a typical Gram-positive bacterial cell (seen by the fact that only one cell membrane is present).
An electron micrograph of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus cells with carboxysomes inside, with arrows highlighting visible carboxysomes. Scale bars indicate 100 nm.
Helicobacter pylori electron micrograph, showing multiple flagella on the cell surface
Bacillus anthracis (stained purple) growing in cerebrospinal fluid
Many bacteria reproduce through binary fission, which is compared to mitosis and meiosis in this image.
A culture of ''Salmonella
A colony of Escherichia coli
Helium ion microscopy image showing T4 phage infecting E. coli. Some of the attached phage have contracted tails indicating that they have injected their DNA into the host. The bacterial cells are ~ 0.5 µm wide.
Transmission electron micrograph of Desulfovibrio vulgaris showing a single flagellum at one end of the cell. Scale bar is 0.5 micrometers long.
The different arrangements of bacterial flagella: A-Monotrichous; B-Lophotrichous; C-Amphitrichous; D-Peritrichous
Streptococcus mutans visualised with a Gram stain.
Phylogenetic tree showing the diversity of bacteria, compared to other organisms. Here bacteria are represented by three main supergroups: the CPR ultramicrobacterias, Terrabacteria and Gracilicutes according to recent genomic analyzes (2019).
Overview of bacterial infections and main species involved.
Colour-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells
In bacterial vaginosis, beneficial bacteria in the vagina (top) are displaced by pathogens (bottom). Gram stain.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the first microbiologist and the first person to observe bacteria using a microscope.

Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi, which are made of cellulose and chitin, respectively.


15 links

Yeast ring used by Swedish farmhouse brewers in the 19th century to preserve yeast between brewing sessions.
Bubbles of carbon dioxide forming during beer-brewing
Yeast in a bottle during sparkling wine production at Schramsberg Vineyards, Napa
A block of compressed fresh yeast
Active dried yeast, a granulated form in which yeast is commercially sold
Diagram showing a yeast cell
Gram stain of Candida albicans from a vaginal swab. The small oval chlamydospores are 2–4 µm in diameter.
A photomicrograph of Candida albicans showing hyphal outgrowth and other morphological characteristics

Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.


22 links

Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing the origins of eukaryotes

A protist is any eukaryotic organism (that is, an organism whose cells contain a cell nucleus) that is not an animal, plant, or fungus.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665


14 links

Scientific study of life.

Scientific study of life.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665
In 1842, Charles Darwin penned his first sketch of On the Origin of Species.
In the Bohr model of an atom, electrons (blue dot) orbit around an atomic nucleus (red-filled circle) in specific atomic orbitals (grey empty circles).
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Organic compounds such as glucose are vital to organisms.
A phospholipid bilayer consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, with the hydrophilic tails facing inwards and the hydrophobic heads facing outwards.
The (a) primary, (b) secondary, (c) tertiary, and (d) quaternary structures of a hemoglobin protein
Structure of an animal cell depicting various organelles
Structure of a plant cell
Example of an enzyme-catalysed exothermic reaction
Respiration in a eukaryotic cell
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
In meiosis, the chromosomes duplicate and the homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis I. The daughter cells divide again in meiosis II to form haploid gametes.
Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b) blossoms
Bases lie between two spiraling DNA strands.
The extended central dogma of molecular biology includes all the processes involved in the flow of genetic information.
Regulation of various stages of gene expression
Composition of the human genome
Construction of recombinant DNA, in which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted into a plasmid vector
Model of concentration gradient building up; fine yellow-orange outlines are cell boundaries.
Natural selection for darker traits
Comparison of allopatric, peripatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation
Bacteria – Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (-=1 Micrometer)
Archaea – Halobacteria
Diversity of protists
Diversity of plants
Diversity of fungi. Clockwise from top left: Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete; Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete; bread covered in mold; chytrid; Aspergillus conidiophore.
Bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall
Root and shoot systems in a eudicot
The xylem (blue) transports water and minerals from the roots upwards whereas the phloem (orange) transports carbohydrates between organs.
Reproduction and development in sporophytes
Negative feedback is necessary for maintaining homeostasis such as keeping body temperature constant.
Diffusion of water and ions in and out of a freshwater fish
Different digestive systems in marine fishes
Respiratory system in a bird
Circulatory systems in arthropods, fish, reptiles, and birds/mammals
Asynchronous muscles power flight in most insects. a: Wings b: Wing joint c: Dorsoventral muscles power upstrokes d: Dorsolongitudinal muscles power downstrokes.
Mouse pyramidal neurons (green) and GABAergic neurons (red)
Sexual reproduction in dragonflies
Cleavage in zebrafish embryo
Processes in the primary immune response
Brood parasites, such as the cuckoo, provide a supernormal stimulus to the parenting species.
Terrestrial biomes are shaped by temperature and precipitation.
Reaching carrying capacity through a logistic growth curve
A (a) trophic pyramid and a (b) simplified food web. The trophic pyramid represents the biomass at each level.
Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. Effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity, are not included.
Efforts are made to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia, without affecting visitors' access.

Biologists have sought to study and classify the various forms of life, from prokaryotic organisms such as archaea and bacteria to eukaryotic organisms such as protists, fungi, plants, and animals.

The Eatable Natural mushroom grow in India


13 links

The Eatable Natural mushroom grow in India
The psychotropic mushroom Amanita muscaria, commonly known as "fly agaric"
Amanita muscaria, the most easily recognised "toadstool", is frequently depicted in fairy stories and on greeting cards. It is often associated with gnomes.
Morphological characteristics of the caps of mushrooms
Maitake, a polypore mushroom
A mushroom (probably Russula brevipes) parasitized by Hypomyces lactifluorum resulting in a "lobster mushroom"
Amanita jacksonii buttons emerging from their universal veils
The blue gills of Lactarius indigo, a milk-cap mushroom
Morchella elata asci viewed with phase contrast microscopy
Agaricus bitorquis mushroom emerging through asphalt concrete in summer
Yellow flower pot mushrooms (Leucocoprinus birnbaumii) at various states of development
The Agaricus bisporus, one of the most widely cultivated and popular mushrooms in the world
Culinary mushrooms are available in a wide diversity of shapes and colors at this market stand at the San Francisco Ferry Building.
Young Amanita phalloides "death cap" mushrooms, with a matchbox for size comparison
Psilocybe zapotecorum, a hallucinogenic mushroom
There are over 100 psychoactive mushroom species of genus Psilocybe native to regions all around the world.
Ganoderma lingzhi
A tinder fungus, Fomes fomentarius

A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source.

Diagram of the plant cell, with the cell wall in green.

Cell wall

13 links

Structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

Structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

Diagram of the plant cell, with the cell wall in green.
Cell wall in multicellular plants – its different layers and their placement with respect to protoplasm (highly diagrammatic)
Molecular structure of the primary cell wall in plants
Photomicrograph of onion root cells, showing the centrifugal development of new cell walls (phragmoplast)
Chemical structure of a unit from a chitin polymer chain
Scanning electron micrographs of diatoms showing the external appearance of the cell wall
Illustration of a typical gram-positive bacterium. The cell envelope comprises a plasma membrane, seen here in light brown, and a thick peptidoglycan-containing cell wall (the purple layer). No outer lipid membrane is present, as would be the case in gram-negative bacteria. The red layer, known as the capsule, is distinct from the cell envelope.

Cell walls are absent in animals but are present in most other eukaryotes including algae, fungi and plants and in most prokaryotes (except mollicute bacteria).