Fungus

Fungifungalnecrotrophicnecrotrophmycotafungal growthfunghiFungus-like organismsmushroomsantibodies, fungal
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.wikipedia
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Yeast

yeastsbrewer's yeastbudding yeast
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Yeasts are eukaryotic single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

Mold

mouldmoldsfilamentous fungi
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A mold (US) or mould (UK / NZ / AU / ZA / IN / CA / IE) is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

Cell wall

cell wallsplant cell wallprimary cell wall
A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls.
Cell walls are present in most prokaryotes (except mollicute bacteria), in algae, fungi and eukaryotes including plants but are absent in animals.

Oomycete

Oomyceteswater mouldOomycota
This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds).
Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants.
Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress.

Mycology

mycologistmycologicalmycologists
The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology (from the Greek μύκης mykes, mushroom).
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, traditional medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.

Heterotroph

heterotrophicheterotrophsheterotrophy
Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment.
Living organisms that are heterotrophic include all animals and fungi, some bacteria and protists, and parasitic plants.

Chitin

chitinouschitinous polymer matrixchitohexaose
A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls.
It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans and insects, the radulae of molluscs, cephalopod beaks, and the scales of fish and lissamphibians.

Pathogenic fungus

fungal diseasepathogenic fungifungal diseases
Fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, and become significant pathogens of humans and other animals.
Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms.

Alkaloid

alkaloidspurine alkaloidalkaloid biosynthesis
Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans.
Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals.

Polyketide

polyketidespolyketide synthasespolyketide synthesis
Many species produce bioactive compounds called mycotoxins, such as alkaloids and polyketides, that are toxic to animals including humans.
Many mycotoxins produced by fungi are polyketides.

Phylum

phyladivisionsuperphylum
Phylogenetic studies published in the last decade have helped reshape the classification within Kingdom Fungi, which is divided into one subkingdom, seven phyla, and ten subphyla.
Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia or Metazoa contains approximately 35 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi contains about 8 phyla.

Sporocarp (fungi)

fruit bodiesfruiting bodyfruiting bodies
They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or as molds.
In fungi, the sporocarp (also known as fruiting body, fruit body or fruitbody) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are born.

Armillaria

honey fungushoney mushroomhoney fungi
To overcome this limitation, some fungi, such as Armillaria, form rhizomorphs, which resemble and perform functions similar to the roots of plants.
Armillaria, is a genus of parasitic fungi that includes the A. mellea species known as honey fungi that live on trees and woody shrubs.

Root

adventitious rootsrootsroot system
To overcome this limitation, some fungi, such as Armillaria, form rhizomorphs, which resemble and perform functions similar to the roots of plants.
The roots of most vascular plant species enter into symbiosis with certain fungi to form mycorrhizae, and a large range of other organisms including bacteria also closely associate with roots.

Tuber (fungus)

Tubertruffletruffles
They have long been used as a direct source of human food, in the form of mushrooms and truffles; as a leavening agent for bread; and in the fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce.
Tuber is a genus in the Tuberaceae family of fungi.

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria.

Vacuole

vacuolesvacuolarvacuolated
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

Hypha

hyphaehyphaldimitic
Most fungi grow as hyphae, which are cylindrical, thread-like structures 2–10µm in diameter and up to several centimeters in length.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.

Mycobiota

mycoflora
A group of all the fungi present in a particular area or geographic region is known as mycobiota (plural noun, no singular), e.g., "the mycobiota of Ireland".
Mycobiota (plural noun, no singular) are a group of all the fungi present in a particular geographic region (e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland") or habitat type (e.g. "the mycobiota of cocoa").

Bioluminescence

bioluminescentlight-producingluminescent
Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies.

Dimorphic fungus

dimorphic fungidimorphicthermally dimorphic
Dimorphic fungi are fungi that can exist in the form of both mold and yeast.

Spore

sporessporulationsporulate
Some well-known examples of fungi formerly in the Zygomycota include black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer), and Pilobolus species, capable of ejecting spores several meters through the air.
Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.

Polypore

poroidbracket fungibracket fungus
The use of fungi by humans dates back to prehistory; Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved mummy of a 5,300-year-old Neolithic man found frozen in the Austrian Alps, carried two species of polypore mushrooms that may have been used as tinder (Fomes fomentarius), or for medicinal purposes (Piptoporus betulinus).
Polypores are a group of fungi that form large fruiting bodies with pores or tubes on the underside (see Delimitation for exceptions).

Mating in fungi

matingmating systembipolar mating system
The biological species concept discriminates species based on their ability to mate.
Research on fungal mating has focused on several model species with different behaviour.