Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

Tropical race 4F. oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubenseFusarium oxysporum'' f. sp. ''cubenseFusarium oxysporum'' f. sp.'' cubense'' (Foc)
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.wikipedia
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Panama disease

soil fungus outbreak
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.
It is a wilting disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc).

Fusarium oxysporum

F. oxysporumPanama diseaseFusarium oxysporum'' f. sp. ''narcissi
Fusarium oxysporum is a common inhabitant of soil and produces three types of asexual spores; macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydospores.
However, results from research conducted on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense forced scientists to question these assumptions.

Banana

bananasbanana treebanana flower
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.
Tropical race 4 (TR4), a reinvigorated strain of Panama disease, was first discovered in 1993.

Gros Michel banana

Gros Michel
Before 1960, a total reliance was put on the cultivar 'Gros Michel', and it supplied almost all the export trade.
This variety was once the dominant export banana to Europe and North America, grown in Central America, but in the 1950s, Panama disease, a wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, wiped out vast tracts of Gros Michel plantations in Central America, though it is still grown on non-infected land throughout the region.

Forma specialis

f.sp.f. sp.formae speciales
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.

Fungus

fungifungalnecrotrophic
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.

Plant pathology

plant pathogenplant pathologistplant pathogens
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.

Musa (genus)

MusabananaMusa'' (genus)
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.

Asexual reproduction

asexualasexuallyreproduce asexually
Banana plants are therefore propagated asexually from offshoots.

Cavendish banana

Cavendishbananasbanana
By the mid-1900s, resistant cultivars in the 'Cavendish' subgroup were being used as a substitute for 'Gros Michel' in the export trade.

True plantains

plantainplantainsMusa acuminata × balbisiana
To make things worse, this variant of the pathogen also affects plantains, Musa acuminata × balbisiana, which are an important staple food in tropical regions of the world.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
To make things worse, this variant of the pathogen also affects plantains, Musa acuminata × balbisiana, which are an important staple food in tropical regions of the world.

Asexuality

asexualasexualsasexually
Fusarium oxysporum is a common inhabitant of soil and produces three types of asexual spores; macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydospores.

Spore

sporessporulationsporulating
Fusarium oxysporum is a common inhabitant of soil and produces three types of asexual spores; macroconidia, microconidia and chlamydospores.

Conidium

conidiaconidiophoreconidiophores
The macroconidia are nearly straight, slender and thin-walled.

Phialide

phialidicPolyphialides
They are generally produced from phialides on conidiophores by basipetal division.

Ascomycota

ascomyceteascomycetessac fungi
They are generally produced from phialides on conidiophores by basipetal division.

Basipetal

They are generally produced from phialides on conidiophores by basipetal division.

Hypha

hyphaehyphalfilamentous
They are either formed from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells.

Inoculation

inoculuminoculatedinoculate
They endure in soils for long periods and act as inocula in primary infection.

Teleomorph, anamorph and holomorph

anamorphteleomorphanamorphic
The teleomorph or sexual reproductive stage of F. oxysporum is unknown.

Heliconia

Heliconia bihaiHeliconian flowersheliconias
Race 3 attacks Heliconia spp.

Gel

hydrogelhydrogelsgels
cubense'' triggers the self-defense mechanisms of the host plant causing the secretion of a gel.

Tylose

This is followed by the formation of tylose in the vascular vessels which blocks the movement of water and nutrients to the upper parts of the plant.