Fusion power

fusion reactorfusionfusion energyfusion reactorscontrolled thermonuclear fusionnuclear fusionnuclear fusion reactorNuclear fusion powercontrolled nuclear fusionthermonuclear energy
Fusion power is a proposed form of power generation that would generate electricity by using heat from nuclear fusion reactions.wikipedia
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Inertial confinement fusion

laser fusioninertial confinementICF
The current leading designs are the tokamak and inertial confinement (ICF) by laser.
Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.

Inertial electrostatic confinement

IECelectrostatic confinement fusionInertial Electrodynamic Fusion
Among these alternatives there is increasing interest in magnetized target fusion and inertial electrostatic confinement, and new variations of the stellarator.
Inertial electrostatic confinement, or IEC, is a class of fusion power devices that use electric fields to confine the plasma rather than the more common approach using magnetic fields found in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) designs.

Magnetic mirror

magnetic bottleconverging magnetic fieldMagnetic bottles
The early emphasis was on three main systems: z-pinch, stellarator and magnetic mirror.
A magnetic mirror, known as a magnetic trap in Russia and briefly as a pyrotron in the US, is a type of magnetic confinement device used in fusion power to trap high temperature plasma using magnetic fields.

Magnetized target fusion

Among these alternatives there is increasing interest in magnetized target fusion and inertial electrostatic confinement, and new variations of the stellarator. In 2002, Canadian company General Fusion began proof-of-concept experiments based on a hybrid magneto-inertial approach called Magnetized Target Fusion. These companies are funded by private investors including Jeff Bezos (General Fusion) and Paul Allen (Tri Alpha Energy).
Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a fusion power concept that combines features of magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF).

ITER

International Thermonuclear Experimental ReactorInternational Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)ITER facility
Both designs are under research at very large scales, most notably the ITER tokamak in France, and the National Ignition Facility laser in the United States.
It is an experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor that is being built next to the Cadarache facility in Saint-Paul-lès-Durance, in Provence, southern France.

Stellarator

HeliacHeliotronflexible Heliac
The early emphasis was on three main systems: z-pinch, stellarator and magnetic mirror. In October 2015, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics completed building the largest stellarator to date, named Wendelstein 7-X.
It is one of the earliest fusion power devices, along with the z-pinch and magnetic mirror.

National Ignition Facility

NIF
Both designs are under research at very large scales, most notably the ITER tokamak in France, and the National Ignition Facility laser in the United States.
NIF uses lasers to heat and compress a small amount of hydrogen fuel with the goal of inducing nuclear fusion reactions.

Nuclear fusion

fusionhydrogen fusionfusion reaction
Fusion power is a proposed form of power generation that would generate electricity by using heat from nuclear fusion reactions.
Research into developing controlled fusion inside fusion reactors has been ongoing since the 1940s, but the technology is still in its development phase.

Spherical tokamak

aspect ratioST
Two other designs have also become fairly well studied; the compact tokamak is wired with the magnets on the inside of the vacuum chamber, while the spherical tokamak reduces its cross section as much as possible.
A spherical tokamak is a type of fusion power device based on the tokamak principle.

Direct energy conversion

direct conversiondirect conversion to extract energy
Direct energy conversion was developed at LLNL in the 1980s as a method to maintain a voltage using the fusion reaction products.
In the middle of the 1960s direct energy conversion was proposed as a method for capturing the energy from the exhaust gas in a fusion reactor.

Classical diffusion

One way to do this is to simply make the reactor volume larger, which reduces the rate of leakage due to classical diffusion.
Classical diffusion is a key concept in fusion power and other fields where a plasma is confined by a magnetic field.

ZETA (fusion reactor)

ZETAZETA fusion reactor
This led to the design of a second series of pinch machines, led by the UK ZETA and Sceptre devices.
ZETA, short for "Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly", was a major experiment in the early history of fusion power research.

Wendelstein 7-X

W7-X
In October 2015, researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics completed building the largest stellarator to date, named Wendelstein 7-X.
Its purpose is to advance stellarator technology, though this experimental reactor will not produce electricity, it is used to evaluate the main components of a future fusion power plant; it was developed based on the predecessor Wendelstein 7-AS experimental reactor.

Z-pinch

pinchLinear pinch devicesz pinch drivers
The early emphasis was on three main systems: z-pinch, stellarator and magnetic mirror.
In fusion power research, the Z-pinch, also known as zeta pinch, is a type of plasma confinement system that uses an electrical current in the plasma to generate a magnetic field that compresses it (see pinch).

Polywell

This has been used on the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, the polywell and the LDX machines.
The polywell is a type of nuclear fusion reactor that uses an electric field to heat ions to fusion conditions.

Plasma (physics)

plasmaplasma physicsplasmas
Fusion processes require fuel and a confined environment with sufficient temperature, pressure and confinement time to create a plasma in which fusion can occur.

Cold fusion

Fleischmann–Pons experimentLENRexcess heat
Some scientists reported excess heat, neutrons, tritium, helium and other nuclear effects in so-called cold fusion systems, which for a time gained interest as showing promise.
It would contrast starkly with the "hot" fusion that is known to take place naturally within stars and artificially in hydrogen bombs and prototype fusion reactors under immense pressure and at temperatures of millions of degrees, and be distinguished from muon-catalyzed fusion.

General Fusion

In 2002, Canadian company General Fusion began proof-of-concept experiments based on a hybrid magneto-inertial approach called Magnetized Target Fusion. These companies are funded by private investors including Jeff Bezos (General Fusion) and Paul Allen (Tri Alpha Energy).
General Fusion is a Canadian company based in Burnaby, British Columbia, which is developing a fusion power device based on magnetized target fusion (MTF).

Tokamak

tokamakselectron cyclotron resonance heatingadvanced tokamak
The current leading designs are the tokamak and inertial confinement (ICF) by laser.
The tokamak is one of several types of magnetic confinement devices being developed to produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power.

Cluster impact fusion

Cluster Impact Fusion is a suggested method of producing practical fusion power using small clusters of heavy water molecules directly accelerated into a titanium-deuteride target.

Tandem Mirror Experiment

Tandem MirrorTMX, TMX-U
This program resulted in a series of large magnetic mirror devices including: 2X, Baseball I, Baseball II, the Tandem Mirror Experiment, the Tandem mirror experiment upgrade, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the MFTF-B.
This was an early experiment towards fusion power.

Tritium

3 Hhydrogen-3triton
Proposed fusion reactors generally use hydrogen isotopes such as deuterium and tritium, which react more easily than hydrogen to allow them to reach the Lawson criterion requirements with less extreme conditions.
This has raised concerns that if tritium were used in large quantities, in particular for fusion reactors, it may contribute to radioactive contamination, although its short half-life should prevent significant long-term accumulation in the atmosphere.

Z Pulsed Power Facility

Z machineZ-machinefusion
Since the 1970s the DoE had been looking into ways to generate electricity from fusion reactions, with continuous reactions such as tokamaks or discrete fusion of small balls of light atoms.

Magnetic confinement fusion

magnetic confinementmagnetic fusion energymagnetic fusion
This opens the possibility of confining the plasma with magnetic field, generally known as magnetic confinement.
Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to generate thermonuclear fusion power that uses magnetic fields to confine the hot fusion fuel in the form of a plasma.

Project PACER

PACERPACER (fusion)Uncontrolled
As part of the PACER project, it was once proposed to use hydrogen bombs as a source of power by detonating them in caverns and then generating electricity from the heat produced, but such a power station is unlikely ever to be constructed.
Project PACER, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity.