Fynbos

fynbos biomearid fynbosfynbos vegetationmontane fynbosSouth African fynbos
Fynbos ( meaning fine-leaved plants) is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa.wikipedia
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Mediterranean climate

warm-summer Mediterranean climateMediterraneanCsb
This area is predominantly winter rainfall coastal and mountainous areas with a Mediterranean climate.
The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile.

Western Cape

WesternWestern Cape ProvinceWestern Province
Fynbos ( meaning fine-leaved plants) is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa.
The vegetation is also extremely diverse, with one of the world's seven floral kingdoms almost exclusively endemic to the province, namely the Cape Floral Kingdom, most of which is covered by Fynbos (from the Afrikaans meaning "Fine Bush" (Dutch: Fijnbosch), though precisely how it came to be referred to as such, is uncertain.).

Cape Floristic Region

CapeCape Floral KingdomCape Floristic Kingdom
In fields related to biogeography, fynbos is known for its exceptional degree of biodiversity and endemism, consisting about 80% (8,500 fynbos) species of the Cape floral kingdom where nearly 6,000 of them are endemic.
Much of this diversity is associated with the fynbos biome, a Mediterranean-type, fire-prone shrubland.

Heath

heathlandheathsheathlands
Fynbos ( meaning fine-leaved plants) is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa.
The fynbos heathlands of South Africa are second only to tropical rainforests in plant biodiversity with over 7,000 species.

Endemism

endemicendemic speciesendemics
In fields related to biogeography, fynbos is known for its exceptional degree of biodiversity and endemism, consisting about 80% (8,500 fynbos) species of the Cape floral kingdom where nearly 6,000 of them are endemic.
The orange-breasted sunbird is exclusively found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa.

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub

Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetationMediterranean forestMediterranean shrubby vegetation
The fynbos ecoregion is within the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome.
Phytogeographers consider the fynbos (South Africa) as a separate floral kingdom because 68% of the 8,600 vascular plant species crowded into its 90000 km2 are endemic and highly distinctive at several taxonomic levels.

Cape Town

Cape Town, South AfricaCapeCape Town, Western Cape
Table Mountain in Cape Town supports 2200 species, more than the entire United Kingdom.
Its vegetation consists predominantly of several different types of the unique and rich Cape Fynbos.

Protea

King ProteasHighveld proteaProtea cryophila
Several plant families are conspicuous in fynbos; the Proteaceae are prominent, with genera such as Protea, Leucospermum (the "pincushions"), and Leucadendron (the silver tree and "cone bushes").
Protea is both the botanical name and the English common name of a genus of South African flowering plants, sometimes also called sugarbushes (Afrikaans: suikerbos) or fynbos.

Leucadendron

Several plant families are conspicuous in fynbos; the Proteaceae are prominent, with genera such as Protea, Leucospermum (the "pincushions"), and Leucadendron (the silver tree and "cone bushes").
Leucadendron is a genus of about 80 species of flowering plants in the family Proteaceae, endemic to South Africa, where they are a prominent part of the fynbos ecoregion and vegetation type.

Erica

heatherheathheathers
Of the Ericas, over 600 occur in the fynbos kingdom, while only two or three dozen have been described in the rest of the world.
Around 690 of the species are endemic to South Africa, and these are often called the Cape heaths, forming the largest genus in the fynbos.

Shrubland

scrubscrublandscrub forest
Fynbos ( meaning fine-leaved plants) is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa.
Fynbos in South Africa

Renosterveld

Rûens Shale Renosterveld
Areas that are dominated by "renosterbos", Elytropappus rhinocerotis, (Asteraceae) are known as Renosterveld (Afrikaans for "rhinoceros veld").
Renosterveld plants grow on rich soil, which makes them more nutritious than typical fynbos plants.

Karoo

Little KarooKaroo BasinGreat Karoo
Five main river systems traverse the Cape floral kingdom: the Oliphants River of the Western Cape; the Berg River which drains the West Coast Forelands plain stretching from the Cape Flats to the Olifants; the Breede, which is the largest river on the Cape; the Olifants River (Southern Cape); Gourits and the Groot Rivers which drain the Little Karoo basin and the South Coast Forelands; and the Baviaanskloof and Gamtoos Rivers to the east.
The Nama Karoo biome is located entirely on the central plateau mostly at altitudes between 1000 and 1500 m. It incorporates nearly the whole of the historical and geographical Great Karoo, but also includes a portion of southern Namibia's Namaqualand, and South Africa's Bushmanland" (both local geographical names, not names of biomes). It is the second-largest biome in South Africa, and forms the botanical transition between the Fynbos biome to the south and the savannah biome to the north. It is defined primarily by the dominance of dwarf (less than 1 m high) shrubs with a codominance of grasses especially towards the north-east and east where it grades into the grassland biome of the Highveld and the Eastern Midlands. The shrubs and grasses are deciduous, mainly in response to the irregular rainfall. Much of the Nama Karoo biome is used for sheep and goat farming, providing mutton, wool, and pelts for local and international markets, especially since livestock can frequently be provided with a regular supply of water from boreholes.

Willdenowia (plant)

WilldenowiaWilldenowia'' (plant)
They include the larger Restionaceae such as species of Elegia, Thamnochortus, and Willdenowia and proteas such as king protea (Protea cynaroides) and blushing bride (Serruria florida). Particular types of lowland fynbos include the shrubs and herbs of the coastal sand dunes, the mixture of ericoids and restoids with thickets of shrubs such as Maytenus, and other Celastraceae, sideroxylons and other Sapotaceae, and Rhus and other Anacardiaceae on the coastal sands; the classic fynbos of the sandplains of the West Coast Forelands, and the Agulhas Plain; the grassy fynbos of the hillier and wetter areas of the South and South-Eastern Coast Forelands; areas where fynbos and renosterveld are mixed; coastal renosterveld on the West and South Coast Forelands; and the inland renosterveld of the drier inland Little Karoo and Warm Bokkeveld.
The entire genus is endemic to the fynbos of the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

Sclerophyll

sclerophylloussclerophyll forestwet sclerophyll
He said: "In this well-known region where the rain occurs in winter and the summers are more or less dry, the dominant vegetation is of a sclerophyllous type and there is little or no natural grassland, though there are many grasses..."
Fynbos

Protea cynaroides

King ProteaNational flower of South AfricaP. cynaroides
They include the larger Restionaceae such as species of Elegia, Thamnochortus, and Willdenowia and proteas such as king protea (Protea cynaroides) and blushing bride (Serruria florida). Particular types of lowland fynbos include the shrubs and herbs of the coastal sand dunes, the mixture of ericoids and restoids with thickets of shrubs such as Maytenus, and other Celastraceae, sideroxylons and other Sapotaceae, and Rhus and other Anacardiaceae on the coastal sands; the classic fynbos of the sandplains of the West Coast Forelands, and the Agulhas Plain; the grassy fynbos of the hillier and wetter areas of the South and South-Eastern Coast Forelands; areas where fynbos and renosterveld are mixed; coastal renosterveld on the West and South Coast Forelands; and the inland renosterveld of the drier inland Little Karoo and Warm Bokkeveld.
The species is also known as giant protea, honeypot or king sugar bush. It is widely distributed in the southwestern and southern parts of South Africa in the fynbos region.

Proteaceae

Proteaproteaceousprotea family
Several plant families are conspicuous in fynbos; the Proteaceae are prominent, with genera such as Protea, Leucospermum (the "pincushions"), and Leucadendron (the silver tree and "cone bushes").
Sugarbushes (Protea), pincushions (Leucospermum) and conebushes (Leucadendron), as well as others like pagodas (Mimetes), Aulax and blushing brides (Serruria), comprise one of the three main plant groups of fynbos, which forms part of the Cape Floral Kingdom, the smallest but richest plant kingdom for its size and the only kingdom contained within a single country.

Restionaceae

restiosRestionidRestio
Restionaceae also occur in greater variety in fynbos than anywhere else; their species are superficially grass-like.
They are the defining family in the Western Cape fynbos plant community.

Cape sugarbird

Lower elevations are covered with protea fynbos, with ericas taking over further up. Plant species include pincushions (Leucospermum). The wildlife includes a number of endemic bees, beetles, horseflies, and ants, and birds such as Cape sugarbirds and the orange-breasted sunbird.
The Cape sugarbird (Promerops cafer) is one of the six bird species endemic to the Fynbos biome of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa.

Mossel Bay

MosselbaaiAliwalVoorbaai
The ecoregion has been subdivided into 9 areas: the West Coast Forelands from the Cape Flats to the Olifants River (Western Cape); the Warm Bokkeveld basin around the town of Ceres; the Elgin Valley around the town of Elgin; the sandy Agulhas Plain on the coast; the Breede River valley around the town of Worcester; the South Coast Forelands from Caledon west to Mossel Bay; the south-eastern end of the Little Karoo; Langkloof valley; and the Southeastern Coast Forelands west from Tsitsikamma to Port Elizabeth.
These mountains of sandstone and shale are characterised by gentle slopes to the seaward side (which are generally covered by montane fynbos and grasslands), and rise to a height of 1,578 m at Cradock Peak, near George (40 km east of Mossel Bay), and 1,675 metres at Formosa Peak near Plettenberg Bay (150 km east of Mossel Bay).

Leucadendron argenteum

Silvertreesilver treeSilvertrees
Several plant families are conspicuous in fynbos; the Proteaceae are prominent, with genera such as Protea, Leucospermum (the "pincushions"), and Leucadendron (the silver tree and "cone bushes").
As recruitment of seedlings only occurs naturally after fire, this was a necessary stage in the life-cycle of this Fynbos species, and the population has recovered totally.

Orange-breasted sunbird

Lower elevations are covered with protea fynbos, with ericas taking over further up. Plant species include pincushions (Leucospermum). The wildlife includes a number of endemic bees, beetles, horseflies, and ants, and birds such as Cape sugarbirds and the orange-breasted sunbird.
This sunbird is endemic to the fynbos habitat of southwestern South Africa.

Rooibos

Rooibos teaRed TeaRooibos grades
Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) are of economic importance, grown and harvested in large quantities in the Cederberg area, and providing important exports.
Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), meaning "red bush"; is a broom-like member of the Fabaceae family of plants growing in South Africa's fynbos.

Cape Peninsula

CapeCape Division (southern Cape Peninsula)the Cape
The region includes the mountains in the west from the Cape Peninsula to the Kouebokkeveld Mountains, the south coast hinterland from Elgin to Port Elizabeth, the mountains north of the Little Karoo from Laingsburg to Willowmore, and the inselberg hills within the Little Karoo.
Table Mountain National Park, previously known as the Cape Peninsula National Park, was proclaimed on 29 May 1998, for the purpose of protecting the natural environment of the Table Mountain Chain, and in particular the rare fynbos vegetation.

Iridaceae

iris familyirisIridaceae (Iris)
Depending on the locality and the aspects under discussion, several other families have equal claim to being characteristic, including Asteraceae, Rutaceae, and Iridaceae.
Evergreen species are restricted to subtropical forests or savannah, temperate grasslands and perennially moist fynbos.