GLONASS

Global Navigation Satellite SystemGLONASS GPSGLONASS KGLONASS satellitesGlonass-M
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС, ; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система, transliteration: ), or "GLObal NAvigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating as part of a radionavigation-satellite service.wikipedia
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Global Positioning System

GPSglobal positioning systemsGlobal Positioning System (GPS)
It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision.
The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.

GPS navigation device

GPS receiverGPSGPS navigation
Manufacturers of GPS navigation devices say that adding GLONASS made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more quickly and accurately, especially in built-up areas where buildings may obscure the view to some GPS satellites.
The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s.

GLONASS-K2

Uragan-K2
The GLONASS satellites' designs have undergone several upgrades, with the version, GLONASS-K2, scheduled to enter service in 2019.
GLONASS-K2 is the next satellite design intended as a part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system.

Satellite constellation

constellationsatellite constellationsconstellations
Beginning on 12 October 1982, numerous rocket launches added satellites to the system, until the completion of the constellation in 1995.
Examples of satellite constellations include the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and GLONASS constellations for navigation and geodesy, the Iridium and Globalstar satellite telephony services, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation and RapidEye for remote sensing, the Orbcomm messaging service, Russian elliptic orbit Molniya and Tundra constellations, the large-scale Teledesic, Skybridge, and Celestri broadband constellation proposals of the 1990s, and more recent systems such as O3b or the OneWeb proposal.

Galileo (satellite navigation)

GalileoGalileo positioning systemGalileo project
Binary offset carrier (BOC) is the modulation used by Galileo, modernized GPS, and BeiDou-2.
One of the aims of Galileo is to provide an independent high-precision positioning system so European nations do not have to rely on the U.S. GPS, or the Russian GLONASS systems, which could be disabled or degraded by their operators at any time.

GLONASS-K

GLONASS-VUragan-K1GLONASS K1 Uragan
Six additional Glonass-V satellites, using Tundra orbit in three orbital planes, will be launched in 2023-2025; this regional high-orbit segment will offer increased regional availability and 25% improvement in precision over Eastern hemisphere, similar to Japanese QZSS system and Beidou-1.
GLONASS-K is the latest satellite design intended as a part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system.

GLONASS (first-generation satellites)

UraganGLONASSGLONASS (satellite)
The first generation GLONASS satellites were 7.8 m tall, had a width of 7.2 m, measured across their solar panels, and a mass of 1260 kg.
GLONASS, also known as Uragan (GRAU Index 11F654) are the first generation of Uragan satellite used as part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system.

GLONASS-M

Uragan-M
On 10 December 2003, the second generation satellite design, GLONASS-M, was launched for the first time.
GLONASS-M, also known as Uragan-M (GRAU index 11F654M given to the first two pilot satellites and 14F113 to the rest) are the second generation of Uragan satellite design used as part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system.

GNSS augmentation

SBASSatellite Based Augmentation Systemsatellite-based augmentation system
The new satellites will be deployed into three additional planes, bringing the total to six planes from the current three—aided by System for Differential Correction and Monitoring (SDCM), which is a GNSS augmentation system based on a network of ground-based control stations and communication satellites Luch 5A and Luch 5B.

Direct-sequence spread spectrum

DSSSDirect Sequence Spread SpectrumDS-CDMA
The signals use similar DSSS encoding and binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation as in GPS signals.

Radionavigation-satellite service

radionavigationRadio Navigation Satellite Servicessatellite-based navigation
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС, ; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система, transliteration: ), or "GLObal NAvigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating as part of a radionavigation-satellite service.

PZ-90

PZ-90.11
GLONASS uses a coordinate datum named "PZ-90" (Earth Parameters 1990 – Parametry Zemli 1990), in which the precise location of the North Pole is given as an average of its position from 1990 to 1995.
PZ-90 (short for Parametry Zemli 1990 goda, in Параметры Земли 1990 года) is a geodetic datum defined for use in the GLONASS system.

GPS Block III

GPS Block IIIAGPS IIIAGPS III
Binary offset carrier (BOC) is the modulation used by Galileo, modernized GPS, and BeiDou-2.

SkyWave Mobile Communications

SkywaveSkywave's LRIT Terminal DMR-800LRIT
SkyWave Mobile Communications manufactures an Inmarsat-based satellite communications terminal that uses both GLONASS and GPS.
In December 2009, SkyWave launched a GLONASS-compatible product for the Russian market.

Production Corporation Polyot

PO PolyotNPO PolyotPolyot
Serial production of the satellites is accomplished by the company PC Polyot in Omsk.
Production Association Polyot is a Russian aerospace engineering company best known for being the manufacturer of GLONASS satellites and the Kosmos-3M space launch vehicle.

U-blox

u-blox develops and sells chips and modules that support global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), including receivers for GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou and QZSS.

Proton-K

ProtonProton 8K82KProton 8K82K rocket
Block II satellites were typically launched three at a time from the Baikonur Cosmodrome using Proton-K Blok-DM-2 or Proton-K Briz-M boosters.
The most commonly used upper stage was the Blok DM-2, which was used on 109 flights, mostly with GLONASS and Raduga satellites.

ZTE

ZTE CorporationZhong Xing Telecommunications EquipmentZhong Xing Telecommunication Equipment Company Limited
As of 2011 it holds around 7% of the key LTE patents and that same year launched the world's first smartphone with dual GPS/GLONASS navigation, MTS 945.

Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

QZSSMichibikiQZS-1
Six additional Glonass-V satellites, using Tundra orbit in three orbital planes, will be launched in 2023-2025; this regional high-orbit segment will offer increased regional availability and 25% improvement in precision over Eastern hemisphere, similar to Japanese QZSS system and Beidou-1.
The mentioned QZSS TKS technology is a novel satellite timekeeping system which does not require on-board atomic clocks as used by existing navigation satellite systems such as GPS, GLONASS, NAVIC or Galileo system.

Garmin

Garmin Ltd.Garmin InternationalGarmin Aviation
, some of the latest receivers in the Garmin eTrex line also support GLONASS (along with GPS).
In May 2011 Garmin refreshed the eTrex product line with new mechanical design and support for advances in cartography and hardware technology with its release of the eTrex 10, eTrex 20, and eTrex 30, Garmin became the first company to manufacture and distribute a worldwide consumer navigation product supporting both GPS and GLONASS satellite constellations.

Glospace SGK-70

For example, the first commercial Russian-made GLONASS navigation device for cars, Glospace SGK-70, was introduced in 2007, but it was much bigger and costlier than similar GPS receivers.
Glospace SGK-70 is the world's first Automotive navigation system that is able to navigate using both GPS and GLONASS signals.

Novolazarevskaya Station

NovolazarevskayaNovoNovolazarevskaya research station
As of early 2012, sixteen positioning ground stations are under construction in Russia and in the Antarctic at the Bellingshausen and Novolazarevskaya bases.
In 2010 GLONASS differential reference station started to work in Novolazarevskaya.

List of GLONASS satellites

701K702K
, 138 GLONASS navigation satellites have been launched, of which 126 reached the correct orbit and 24 are currently operational.

GRAU

GRAU indexMain Artillery DirectorateGAU
Each GLONASS satellite has a GRAU designation 11F654, and each of them also has the military "Cosmos-NNNN" designation.