Gabapentin

NeurontinFranklin v. Parke-DavisGabapentin ERGabapentin extended-releaseGralise
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat partial seizures, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.wikipedia
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Gabapentinoid

Gabapentinoids
Gabapentin is a gabapentinoid. Gabapentin is a gabapentinoid, or a ligand of the auxiliary α 2 δ subunit site of certain voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), and thereby acts as an inhibitor of α 2 δ subunit-containing VDCCs.
This site has been referred to as the gabapentin receptor (α 2 δ subunit), as it is the target of the drugs gabapentin and pregabalin.

Neuropathic pain

neuropathicpaincentral neuropathic pain
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat partial seizures, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Favored treatments are certain antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), anticonvulsants (pregabalin and gabapentin), and topical lidocaine.

Postherpetic neuralgia

post-herpetic neuralgianeuralgia, postherpeticnerve pain caused by shingles
It is recommended as one of a number of first-line medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and central neuropathic pain. A 2010 European Federation of Neurological Societies task force clinical guideline recommended gabapentin as a first-line treatment for diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, or central pain.
Oral anticonvulsant medications such as gabapentin and pregabalin are also approved for treatment of PHN.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms

DRESS syndromeDRESSDrug hypersensitivity syndrome
Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide, aggressive behavior, and drug reactions.

Sciatica

lumbosacral radiculopathylumbar radiculopathysciatic
A 2018 review found that gabapentin was of no benefit in sciatica nor low back pain.
Many treatments, including corticosteroids, gabapentin, pregabalin, acupuncture, heat or ice, and spinal manipulation, have limited or poor evidence for their use.

Side effect

side effectsside-effectsside-effect
Common side effects include sleepiness and dizziness.

Mood stabilizer

mood stabilizersmood-stabilizingmood stabiliser
There are, however, concerns regarding the quality of the trials conducted and evidence for some such uses, especially in the case of its use as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder.
There is insufficient evidence to support the use of various other anticonvulsants, such as gabapentin and topiramate, as mood stabilizers.

Parke-Davis

Parke, Davis & CoParke, Davis & Co.Hervey Coke Parke
During the 1990s, Parke-Davis, a subsidiary of Pfizer, began using a number of illegal techniques to encourage physicians in the United States to use gabapentin for unapproved uses.
In the case of Franklin v. Parke-Davis (2002), the company was accused of illegal marketing practices, including the promotion of off-label uses of its anticonvulsant medication Neurontin.

Restless legs syndrome

restless leg syndromerestless legsrestless legs syndrome (RLS)
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat partial seizures, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Medications used may include dopamine agonists or gabapentin in those with daily restless legs syndrome, and opioids for treatment of resistant cases.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
A 2009 review found gabapentin may reduce opioid use following surgery, but does not help with post-surgery chronic pain.

Anticonvulsant

anticonvulsantsantiepilepticantiepileptic drugs
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat partial seizures, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome. In accordance, inhibition of α 2 δ-1-containing VDCCs by gabapentin appears to be responsible for its anticonvulsant, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects.
According to guidelines by the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society, mainly based on a major article review in 2004, patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy who require treatment can be initiated on standard anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid/valproate semisodium, phenobarbital, or on the newer anticonvulsants gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine or topiramate.

Lithium (medication)

lithiumlithium saltslithium salt
Studies have also shown an almost doubled rate of suicidal ideation in patients with bipolar disorder who are taking gabapentin versus those on lithium.
Gabapentin and clonazepam are also indicated as antipanic medications during the childbearing years and during pregnancy.

Pfizer

Pfizer Inc.Pfizer, Inc.Pfizer Inc
During the 1990s, Parke-Davis, a subsidiary of Pfizer, began using a number of illegal techniques to encourage physicians in the United States to use gabapentin for unapproved uses.
Access to Wyeth internal documents has revealed marketing strategies used to promote Neurontin for off-label use.

Somnolence

drowsinesssleepinessDrowsy
Common side effects include sleepiness and dizziness.

Low back pain

lumbagolower back painlower back
A 2018 review found that gabapentin was of no benefit in sciatica nor low back pain.
Although the antiseizure drugs gabapentin, pregabalin, and topiramate are sometimes used for chronic low back pain evidence does not support a benefit.

Off-label use

off-labeloff labeloff-label marketing
During the 1990s, Parke-Davis, a subsidiary of Pfizer, began using a number of illegal techniques to encourage physicians in the United States to use gabapentin for unapproved uses.
In 2004, the federal government and whistleblower David Franklin reached a $430 million settlement in Franklin v. Parke-Davis to resolve claims that Warner-Lambert engaged in off-label promotion of Neurontin in violation of the FDCA and the False Claims Act.

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

GABAγ-aminobutyric acidGABAergic
It has a molecular structure similar to that of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acts by inhibiting certain calcium channels.

Essential tremor

tremorsEssential tremorsBenign essential tremor syndrome
Gabapentin may be an option in essential or orthostatic tremor.
Second-line medications are the anti-epileptics topiramate, gabapentin (as monotherapy) or levetiracetam, or benzodiazepines such as alprazolam.

Analgesic

analgesiaanalgesicspainkillers
In accordance, inhibition of α 2 δ-1-containing VDCCs by gabapentin appears to be responsible for its anticonvulsant, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects.
Adjuvant analgesics, also called atypical analgesics, include nefopam, orphenadrine, pregabalin, gabapentin, cyclobenzaprine, hyoscine (scopolamine), and other drugs possessing anticonvulsant, anticholinergic, and/or antispasmodic properties, as well as many other drugs with CNS actions.

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

alcohol withdrawalwithdrawalalcohol
Gabapentin may reduce symptoms of alcohol withdrawal (but it does not prevent the associated seizures), alcohol dependence and craving.
Limited evidence supports the use of gabapentin or carbamazepine for the treatment of mild or moderate alcohol withdrawal as the sole treatment or as combination therapy with other medications; however, gabapentin does not appear to be effective for treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal and is therefore not recommended for use in this setting.

Central pain syndrome

centralcentral pain
A 2010 European Federation of Neurological Societies task force clinical guideline recommended gabapentin as a first-line treatment for diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, or central pain.
Tricyclic antidepressants such as nortriptyline or anticonvulsants such as neurontin (gabapentin) can be useful.

Nystagmus

nystagmus, pathologicPathologic nystagmusHorizontal gaze nystagmus
Gabapentin may be effective in acquired pendular nystagmus and infantile nystagmus (but not periodic alternating nystagmus).
Subsequently, gabapentin, an anticonvulsant, was found to cause improvement in about half the patients who received it to relieve symptoms of nystagmus.

Voltage-gated calcium channel

voltage-dependent calcium channelvoltage-gated calcium channelsVDCC
Gabapentin is a gabapentinoid, or a ligand of the auxiliary α 2 δ subunit site of certain voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), and thereby acts as an inhibitor of α 2 δ subunit-containing VDCCs.
This drug class includes two anticonvulsant drugs, gabapentin (Neurontin) and pregabalin (Lyrica), that also find use in treating chronic neuropathic pain.

Myoclonus

myoclonicmyoclonic jerkmyoclonic jerks
Some have suggested avoiding gabapentin in people with a history of myoclonus or myasthenia gravis, as it may induce or mimic the symptoms of these two conditions.
Myoclonus may develop in response to infection, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, head or spinal cord injury, stroke, stress, brain tumors, kidney or liver failure, lipid storage disease, chemical or drug poisoning, as a side effect of certain drugs (such as tramadol, quinolones, benzodiazepine, gabapentin, sertraline, lamotrigine, opioids), or other disorders.

CACNA2D1

1α 2 δ-1α 2 δ 1 subunit
There are two drug-binding α 2 δ subunits, α 2 δ-1 and α 2 δ-2, and gabapentin shows similar affinity for (and hence lack of selectivity between) these two sites.
alpha2/delta proteins are believed to be the molecular target of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin, which are used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain.