A report on Gabriel Bethlen and Stephen Bocskai

Statue of Gábor Bethlen, by György Vastagh, Heroes' Square, Budapest, Hungary
A bastion of Bocskai's castle at Nagykereki
Bethlen on horseback (print)
The fortress of Várad (now Oradea in Romania) in 1598 (an engraving by Joris Hoefnagel)
Transylvanian Thaler of Gabriel Bethlen showing his portrait and coat of arms (1621)
Bocskai's nephew, Sigismund Báthory, Prince of Transylvania
Principality of Gabriel Bethlen
The Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph, who was also the ruler of Royal Hungary, an engraving by Aegidius Sadeler (1603)
Seal of Bethlen
Rudolph's commander, Giorgio Basta, who planned to murder Bocskai
Kassa (now Košice in Slovakia) in 1617
Bocskai's princely seal
Crown of Stephen Bocskai (a diadem that the Grand Vizier, Lala Mehmed Pasha, gave to Bocskai)
Bocskai's golden ducate, depicting the elderly prince
Bocskai's statue on the Reformation Wall (Geneva, Switzerland)

One of the later sources is Gabriel's own letter from 1628, in which he stated that Stephen Bocskai had raised him and "placed great credence" in him.

- Gabriel Bethlen

The leader of the Transylvanian noblemen who had fled to the Ottoman Empire, Gabriel Bethlen, sent a letter to Bocskai urging him to rise up against Rudolph, but Bocskai refused.

- Stephen Bocskai

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The legendary seven Hungarian chiefs depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle

Hungarian nobility

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The Hungarian nobility consisted of a privileged group of individuals, most of whom owned landed property, in the Kingdom of Hungary.

The Hungarian nobility consisted of a privileged group of individuals, most of whom owned landed property, in the Kingdom of Hungary.

The legendary seven Hungarian chiefs depicted in the Illuminated Chronicle
The remains of the 11th-century earthen fort at Szabolcs
Hunt, an ancestor of the Hont-Pázmány kindred, depicted in the Chronicon Pictum
The Golden Bull of 1222
Árva Castle (now Oravský hrad in Slovakia), one of the royal fortresses built after the Mongol invasion of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary in the second half of the 13th century
Léka Castle (now Burg Lockenhaus in Austria), built before 1300
Insignia of the Order of Saint George
The Hunyadi family's castle at Vajdahunyad
Gravestone of Stibor the Younger (died 1434) in Budapest History Museum
Thurzó family's coat of arms from the 15th century on the ceiling of Zápolya family chapel in Csütörtökhely, today in Slovakia
Hungary divided into three parts in 1572: Royal Hungary (and Croatia), Ottoman Hungary, and the western territories of the Principality of Transylvania
Paul I. Esterházy
The Esterházy's palace Eszterháza at Fertőd
Tivadar Kubinyi member of the Royal Hungarian Bodyguard
Francis I being crowned King of Hungary in the circle of Hungarian aristocrats, 1792
János Malonyay in a typical Hungarian noble dress, 1829
King Francis Joseph and members of the Hungarian nobility during the Millenium Celebrations of 1896
The Ancestors' Hall with the portraits of the Nádasdy family, Nádasdladány Mansion, late 19th century
Hungarian Prime Minister Count István Bethlen and Hungarian Finance Minister Tibor Kállay, 1923
Ruins of a demolished Hungarian neoclassical mansion in Alcsút

Stephen Bocskai, Prince of Transylvania, settled 10,000 hajdús in seven villages and exempted them from taxation in 1605, which was the "largest collective ennoblement" in the history of Hungary.

Gabriel Bethlen granted nobility to all Calvinist pastors.

Košice

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Largest city in eastern Slovakia.

Largest city in eastern Slovakia.

Eastern Hungarian Kingdom around 1550, including Košice shown as 'Kassa'
Part of the Ottoman Empire in 1683, including the Principality of Upper Hungary, based around Košice shown as 'Kassa'
"Cassovia: Superioris Hungariae Civitas Primaria", the prospect from Civitates orbis terrarum. Cassovia (Slovak: Košice, German: Kaschau, Hungarian: Kassa), the "capital" of Upper Hungary in 1617.
The military base in Košice at the end of the 18th century
National Theater built in 1899
Main Street – 1902
Hlavná ulica (Main Street) in historic downtown
Statue of Košice's coat of arms, the first municipal coat of arms in Europe
Aupark Shopping Centre
St. Elisabeth Cathedral in Košice is Slovakia's largest church
Divizia – seat of the Košice Self-Governing Region
The seat of the Slovak Constitutional Court
Košice International Airport
Steel Aréna
The Tree of Partnership on Hlavná Street

The Calvinist Stephen Bocskay then occupied Košice during his Protestant, Ottoman-backed insurrection against the Habsburg dynasty.

On September 5, 1619, the prince of Transylvania, Gabriel Bethlen captured Košice with the assistance of the future George I Rákóczi in another anti-Habsburg insurrection.

Gabriel Báthory

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Prince of Transylvania from 1608 to 1613.

Prince of Transylvania from 1608 to 1613.

Ruins of the Báthorys' castle at Szilágysomlyó (now Șimleu Silvaniei in Romania)
The Báthorys' fortress at Nagyecsed in 1688
Michael Weiss, mayor of Brassó (now Brașov in Romania)
Szeben during the 17th century
Várad (now Oradea in Romania) in 1617

The Sultan decided to replace Gabriel with an exiled Transylvanian nobleman, Gabriel Bethlen, and sent troops to invade the principality in August 1613.

One of the wealthiest landowners, Stephen Bocskai, was accused of maintaining secret correspondence with Transylvanian exiles in 1604.