A report on Gabriel Bethlen

Statue of Gábor Bethlen, by György Vastagh, Heroes' Square, Budapest, Hungary
Bethlen on horseback (print)
Transylvanian Thaler of Gabriel Bethlen showing his portrait and coat of arms (1621)
Principality of Gabriel Bethlen
Seal of Bethlen

Prince of Transylvania from 1613 to 1629 and Duke of Opole from 1622 to 1625.

- Gabriel Bethlen

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Alba Iulia

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City that serves as the seat of Alba County in the west-central part of Romania.

City that serves as the seat of Alba County in the west-central part of Romania.

"Porta Principalis Dextra" of the castrum Apulum
Defense wall of Alba Carolina citadel.
Alba Iulia synagogue
The Batthyaneum Library, former monastery of the Trinitarians
The Roman Catholic Cathedral. Its tower dates from the 17th century.
Obelisk of Horea, Cloșca and Crișan
Romanian Orthodox Cathedral, early 20th century
Cannon fire by the citadel's Austrian guard
Alba Iulia on a 1556 map
The Union Museum
Unirii Museum
Horea, Cloșca & Crișan Obelisk
Gate I
Gate III
Unirii Hall, view from Custozza Park
Michael the Brave Statue
Piața Unirii (Union Square)

During the reign of Prince Gábor Bethlen, the city reached a high point in its cultural history with the establishment of an academy.

Peace of Pressburg (1626)

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Peace treaty concluded in Pressburg (then Pozsony today's Bratislava).

Peace treaty concluded in Pressburg (then Pozsony today's Bratislava).

It was signed on 30 December 1626 between Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, the leader of an uprising against the Habsburg monarchy from 1619–1626, and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II.

17th-century drawing

Stephen Pongracz

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Hungarian Jesuit priest, martyr and saint of the Catholic Church.

Hungarian Jesuit priest, martyr and saint of the Catholic Church.

17th-century drawing

The two Jesuits were working in small towns when they heard the news that a Calvinist army was marching on Kassa in an attempt to expand the territory of Gabriel Bethlen, prince of Transylvania.

Peace of Tyrnau

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The Peace of Tyrnau or Treaty of Nagyszombat was signed on 6 May 1615 between Holy Roman Emperor Matthias and Gábor Bethlen.

Ilia, Hunedoara

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Commune in Hunedoara County, Romania.

Commune in Hunedoara County, Romania.

Gabriel Bethlen (1580 in Marosillye – 1629), Prince of Transylvania from 1613 to 1629.

Coat of arms of the Opole Piasts c. 1389

Duke of Opole

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List of monarchs who used the title Duke of Opole and controlled the city and the surrounding area either directly or indirectly .

List of monarchs who used the title Duke of Opole and controlled the city and the surrounding area either directly or indirectly .

Coat of arms of the Opole Piasts c. 1389

1622-1625 Gabriel Bethlen (Gabriel Bethlen)

17th-century drawing

Melchior Grodziecki

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Melchior Grodziecki (c.

Melchior Grodziecki (c.

17th-century drawing

The bodies of the martyrs were recovered, after negotiations with Gabriel Bethlen, and were buried in the vicinity of Kassa.

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1633

Thirty Years' War

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One of the most destructive wars in European history.

One of the most destructive wars in European history.

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1633
Habsburg possessions in Europe, ca. 1700
The Spanish Road
Purple: Spanish dependencies
Green: Ruled by Austria
Brown: Ruled by Spain
A contemporary woodcut depicts the Third Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt
Contemporary painting showing the Battle of White Mountain (1620), where Imperial-Spanish forces under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly won a decisive victory.
Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria whose seizure of the Palatinate expanded the war
Contemporary colored engraving showing the Siege of Stralsund, May to 4 August 1628
Albrecht von Wallenstein achieved great military success for the Empire but his power threatened both Ferdinand and the German princes
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, known as the "Lion of the North", who was killed at Lützen in 1632
Travellers attacked by soldiers, Vrancx, 1647. Note devastated landscape in background; by the 1640s, shortage of supplies and forage for horses drastically limited military campaigns
The final battle of the war; Swedish siege of Prague
Siege and capture of Casale Monferrato by French troops, 1630
The Iberian Union; Spain's inability to protect Portuguese interests in the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War was a key factor in the 1640 Portuguese Restoration War
Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Frederick's son Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, restored by Westphalia
Population declines within Germany 1618 to 1648
Note; Decline includes factors such as emigration from rural to more secure urban areas and does not equate to Deaths
Soldiers plundering a farm
Breitenfeld 1631; Tilly's army (Left) are deployed two companies deep, the Swedes (Right) just one company deep
A peasant begs for mercy in front of his burning farm; by the 1630s, being caught in the open by soldiers from either side was 'tantamount to a death sentence'
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Swedish sovereignty over Western Pomerania (in blue) was confirmed in 1653
500px
Frederick V of the Palatinate was crowned 'Frederick II' of Bohemia in 1619 as a protest by the largely Protestant Czech nobility.
Sack of Magdeburg in 1631. Of the 25,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived.
King Gustavus was killed at the Battle of Lützen in November 1632.
Signing of the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch Republic, 30 January 1648.
The defeat at Nördlingen in 1634 was a huge setback for the Protestant-Swedish alliance and influenced France's entry into the war the following year.
Cardinal Richelieu largely directed French foreign policy throughout the course of the conflict.
Ferdinand III was elected Holy Roman Emperor following the death of his father in 1637.
Louis, Duke of Enghien leading at Freiburg, 1644.
Although a French victory, the second battle of Nördlingen in 1645 delayed their advance into Bavaria for another year.
The Battle of Lens was one of the last major battles of the main conflict. However, the war between France and Spain would continue until 1659.

Gabriel Bethlen, Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, invaded Hungary with Ottoman support, although the Habsburgs persuaded them to avoid direct involvement; this was helped when the Ottomans became involved in the 1620 Polish war, followed by the 1623 to 1639 conflict with Persia.

Hunedoara

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City in Hunedoara County, Transylvania, Romania.

City in Hunedoara County, Transylvania, Romania.

Hunedoara as depicted by Ludwig Rohbock (1820−1883)
The castle in winter
Hunyadi Castle

Gabriel Bethlen Voivode of Transylvania consolidated and enlarged the castle, and gave it to his nephew Stephen Betlen who lived here with his wife Mary Széchy, famed for her beauty.

Banská Bystrica

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City in central Slovakia located on the Hron River in a long and wide valley encircled by the mountain chains of the Low Tatras, the Veľká Fatra, and the Kremnica Mountains.

City in central Slovakia located on the Hron River in a long and wide valley encircled by the mountain chains of the Low Tatras, the Veľká Fatra, and the Kremnica Mountains.

City barbican
The old town, viewed from Urpín Mountain, is the core of the original settlement
The lavish gate of the Beniczky House, owned by the Hungarian noble Beniczky family, (in Slovak Benický ) on SNP Square displays a coat of arms of one of the aristocratic families from Banská Bystrica
Banská Bystrica's economic growth, exemplified here by the construction of the Europa Business and Shopping Center (2007), mirrors the economic growth of Slovakia
Námestie SNP is the natural center of the city
St. Francis Xavier Cathedral
Matthias House (Matejov dom) and Holy Cross Church
Museum of the Slovak National Uprising
The regional branch of the National Bank of Slovakia in Banská Bystrica
Matej Bel University
Terminal Shopping Center Bus station in Banská Bystrica

In 1620, Prince Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, a Protestant, was elected King of Hungary by the Diet meeting at Banská Bystrica.