Gadsden Purchase

Gadsden TreatyGadsdenGadsen PurchaseTreaty of MesillaGadsden Purchase of 1853Gadsden Purchase TreatyGasden PurchaseMesilla ValleyThe Gadsden PurchaseTreaty of La Mesilla or Gadsden Purchase
The Gadsden Purchase, known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla (Sale of La Mesilla), is a 29670 sqmi region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States acquired from Mexico by the Treaty of Mesilla, which took effect on June 8, 1854.wikipedia
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Arizona

AZState of ArizonaArizona, U.S.
The Gadsden Purchase, known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla (Sale of La Mesilla), is a 29670 sqmi region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States acquired from Mexico by the Treaty of Mesilla, which took effect on June 8, 1854.
The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.

James Gadsden

Col. James GadsdenGadsdenGadsden, James
The first draft was signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico, and by Antonio López de Santa Ana, president of Mexico.
James Gadsden (May 15, 1788 – December 26, 1858) was an American diplomat, soldier and businessman after whom the Gadsden Purchase is named, pertaining to land which the United States bought from Mexico, and which became the southern portions of Arizona and New Mexico.

Franklin Pierce

PiercePresident PiercePresident Franklin Pierce
The U.S. Senate voted in favor of ratifying it with amendments on April 25, 1854, and then transmitted it to President Franklin Pierce.
He was a Young America expansionist who signed the Gadsden Purchase of land from Mexico and led a failed attempt to acquire Cuba from Spain.

Transcontinental railroad

transcontinentaltranscontinental railwaytranscontinental rail line
The purchase included lands south of the Gila River and west of the Rio Grande where the U.S. wanted to build a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route, which the Southern Pacific Railroad later completed in 1881–1883.

Yuma, Arizona

YumaYuma, AZArizona City
The Arizona cities of Tucson and Yuma are on territory acquired by the U.S. in the Gadsden Purchase.
After the Gadsden Purchase by the United States, the town bordered on the Territory of New Mexico.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
The Gadsden Purchase, known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla (Sale of La Mesilla), is a 29670 sqmi region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States acquired from Mexico by the Treaty of Mesilla, which took effect on June 8, 1854.
A much smaller transfer of territory in what is today southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico—known as the Gadsden Purchase—occurred in 1854.

Mexico–United States border

U.S.-Mexico borderMexican borderUnited States–Mexico border
The purchase was the last substantial territorial acquisition in the contiguous United States, and defined the Mexico–United States border.
Five years later the Gadsden Purchase completed the creation of the current United States–Mexico border.

New Mexico

NMState of New MexicoNew Mexican
The Gadsden Purchase, known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla (Sale of La Mesilla), is a 29670 sqmi region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States acquired from Mexico by the Treaty of Mesilla, which took effect on June 8, 1854.
In 1853, the United States acquired the mostly desert southwestern bootheel of the state and southern Arizona south of the Gila River in the Gadsden Purchase.

Jefferson Davis

Jeff DavisDavisJefferson Finis Davis
The administration of President Pierce, strongly influenced by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, saw an opportunity to acquire land for the railroad, as well as to acquire significant other territory from northern Mexico.
He promoted the Gadsden Purchase of today's southern Arizona from Mexico, partly because it would provide an easier southern route for the new railroad; the Pierce administration agreed and the land was purchased in December 1853.

William H. Emory

William Hemsley EmoryWilliam EmoryEmory
During that war, topographical officers William H. Emory and James W. Abert had conducted surveys that demonstrated the feasibility of a railroad's originating in El Paso or western Arkansas and ending in San Diego.
A compromise was reached with the Gadsden Purchase of 1854, and Emory was selected to lead the American boundary commission to survey, 1855–1856, the new boundary line (earlier he had influenced the debate over approving the treaty by advising Senator Thomas Jefferson Rusk of Texas on the best route for a southern transcontinental railroad, one of the key points of the Gadsden Treaty).

Gila River

GilaGila ValleyGila Basin
The purchase included lands south of the Gila River and west of the Rio Grande where the U.S. wanted to build a transcontinental railroad along a deep southern route, which the Southern Pacific Railroad later completed in 1881–1883.
After the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848, the Gila River served as a part of the border between the United States and Mexico until the 1853 Gadsden Purchase soon extended American territory well south of the Gila.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo1848 Treaty of Guadalupe HidalgoTreaty of Guadalupe
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the Mexican–American War, but left issues affecting both sides that still needed to be resolved: possession of the Mesilla Valley, protection for Mexico from Indian raids, and the right of transit in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
The amount of land gained by the United States from Mexico was further increased as a result of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which ceded parts of present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States of America.

Sonora

Sonora, MexicoSonoranSonora State
Pierce was also aware of efforts by France, through its consul in San Francisco, to acquire the Mexican state of Sonora. As originally envisioned, the purchase would have encompassed a much larger region, extending far enough south to include most of the current Mexican states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas.
With the Gadsden Purchase, Sonora lost more than a quarter of its territory.

Antonio López de Santa Anna

Santa AnnaAntonio Lopez de Santa AnnaGeneral Santa Anna
The first draft was signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico, and by Antonio López de Santa Ana, president of Mexico.
He funneled government funds to his own pockets, sold more territory to the U.S. with the Gadsden Purchase, and declared himself dictator-for-life with the title "Most Serene Highness."

William L. Marcy

William MarcyWilliam Learned MarcyMarcy
Secretary of State William L. Marcy gave Gadsden clear instructions: he was to secure the Mesilla Valley for the purposes of building a railroad through it, convince Mexico that the US had done its best regarding the Indian raids, and elicit Mexican cooperation in efforts by US citizens to build a canal or railroad across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
In the latter office, he negotiated the Gadsden Purchase, the last major acquisition of land in the continental United States.

Mexican–American War

Mexican-American WarMexican WarMexican American War
After the devastating loss of Mexican territory to the U.S. in the Mexican–American War (1846–48) and the continued filibustering by U.S. citizens, Santa Ana may have calculated it was better to yield territory by treaty and receive payment rather than have the territory simply seized by the U.S.
The US was released from all obligations of Article XI five years later by Article II of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853.

New Mexico Territory

Territory of New MexicoNew MexicoNew Mexico Territories
The Compromise of 1850, which created the Utah Territory and the New Mexico Territory, would facilitate a southern route to the West Coast since all territory for the railroad was now organized and would allow for federal land grants as a financing measure.
The Gadsden Purchase was acquired by the United States from Mexico in 1853/1854 (known as the "Venta de La Mesilla" or the "Sale of La Mesilla"), arranged by the then-American ambassador to Mexico, James Gadsden.

Cochise County in the Old West

Cochise CountyCochise County feudconflicts
The tension culminated in what has been called the Cochise County feud, and the Earp-Clanton feud, which ended with the historic Gunfight at the O.K. Corral and Wyatt Earp's Vendetta Ride.
The Gadsden Purchase of 1853 had opened the territory to Americans, and the sudden growth of settlement and investment proved a source of great enmity between local Apaches and the American newcomers.

Arizona Territory

Territory of ArizonaArizonaArizona Territorial
In 1863, using a north-to-south dividing line, the Union created its own Arizona Territory out of the western half of the New Mexico Territory.
Following the expansion of the New Mexico Territory in 1853, as a result of the Gadsden Purchase, several proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona in the southern half of the territory were advanced as early as 1856.

Pima County, Arizona

Pima CountyPimaTucson metropolitan area
When the Arizona Territory was formed in 1863 from the southern portion of the New Mexico Territory, Pima County and later Cochise County—created from the easternmost portion of Pima County in January 1881—were subject to ongoing border-related conflicts.
Pima County, one of the four original counties in Arizona, was created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature with land acquired through the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico in 1853.

Tucson, Arizona

TucsonTucson, AZTucson, Arizona Territory
The Arizona cities of Tucson and Yuma are on territory acquired by the U.S. in the Gadsden Purchase. The Southern Pacific Railroad from Los Angeles reached Yuma, Arizona, in 1877, Tucson, Arizona in March 1880, Deming, New Mexico in December 1880, and El Paso in May 1881, the first railroad across the Gadsden Purchase.
The United States acquired Tucson via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8, 1854.

Isthmus of Tehuantepec

Tehuantepec RouteTehuantepec IsthmusIsthmus
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the Mexican–American War, but left issues affecting both sides that still needed to be resolved: possession of the Mesilla Valley, protection for Mexico from Indian raids, and the right of transit in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
The 1854 Gadsden Purchase treaty included a provision allowing the U.S. to transport mail and trade goods across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec via a plank road and railroad.

Deming, New Mexico

DemingDeming, NM
The Southern Pacific Railroad from Los Angeles reached Yuma, Arizona, in 1877, Tucson, Arizona in March 1880, Deming, New Mexico in December 1880, and El Paso in May 1881, the first railroad across the Gadsden Purchase.
The city, founded in 1881 and incorporated in 1902, was an important port of entry on the US-Mexican border until the Gadsden Purchase of 1853.

Chihuahua (state)

ChihuahuaChihuahua, Mexicostate of Chihuahua
As originally envisioned, the purchase would have encompassed a much larger region, extending far enough south to include most of the current Mexican states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Sonora, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas.
Despite the efforts of strong political forces led by Ángel Trías in the state could not stop President Santa Anna from selling La Mesilla as part of the Gadsden Purchase on December 30, 1853 for 15 million USD.

Confederate Arizona

Arizona TerritoryConfederate Territory of ArizonaConfederate Arizona Territory
In 1861, during the American Civil War, the Confederate States of America formed the Confederate Territory of Arizona, including in the new territory mainly areas acquired by the Gadsden Purchase.
Before the start of the war, the land of the current states of New Mexico and Arizona was part of the New Mexico Territory and the Gadsden Purchase, which ran parallel to William Walker's Republics of Lower California and Sonora.