A report on MajapahitJavanese people and Gajah Mada

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
The terracotta figure collection of Trowulan Museum. Mohammad Yamin used this clay image as a popular depiction of Gajah Mada.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
The expansion of the Majapahit empire in the 14th century much owed to Gajah Mada
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
According Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located on northern parts of Majapahit capital city. The residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada also located in northern part of the city, tradition linked this gate with Gajah Mada's residence.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after Palapa oath.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Javanese abugida.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
Javanese temple.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Traditional Javanese house.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
A Javanese sailor.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Varieties of Javanese keris
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Weapon of Java: Keris
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Javanese weapons and standards
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Javanese agricultural tools
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
Javanese masks
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
Javanese temple.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

1290 – c. 1364), also known as Jirnnodhara was, according to Old Javanese manuscripts, poems, and mythology, a powerful military leader and Mahapatih (the approximate equivalent of a modern Prime Minister) of the Javanese empire of Majapahit during the 14th century.

- Gajah Mada

His achievement is also credited to his prime minister, Gajah Mada.

- Majapahit

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

- Javanese people

Kertanegara policies were later continued by the Majapahits under King Hayam Wuruk and his minister Gajah Mada.

- Javanese people

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Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

The ethnic groups native to the island are the Javanese in the central and eastern parts and Sundanese in the western parts.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Hayam Wuruk's prime minister, Gajah Mada, led many of the kingdom's territorial conquests.

Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

Indonesia consists of thousands of distinct native ethnic and hundreds of linguistic groups, with Javanese being the largest.

The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia.

The territory of Sunda Kingdom

Sunda Kingdom

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Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

The territory of Sunda Kingdom
The word Sunda written in Sundanese script
Batutulis inscription (dated 1533), in Bogor, commemorate the great King of Sunda Sri Baduga Maharaja (rule 1482-1521).
The Sundanese royal party arrived at the port of Hujung Galuh by Junk Sassana, a type of Javanese junk, which also incorporates Chinese techniques, such as using iron nails alongside wooden dowels, the construction of watertight bulkhead, and addition of central rudder.
Sundanese traditional house with Julang Ngapak roof in Garut circa 1920s. It was built on poles and having a thatched roof, as described in a 12th-century Chinese source.
Old map of Java still thought that land of Sunda in the west is separated from the rest of Java island. Here the capital of Sunda is called Daio which refer to Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran
The ruin of Bojongmenje Hindu temple in Priangan highlands, estimated was built in the 7th century.
Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
Sanghyang Tapak inscription
One of Kawali inscriptions
Statue of a Hindu god from Talaga near Kuningan, West Java, dated from the Sunda Kingdom.
Keraton Kasepuhan of Cirebon. By 1482, the Sunda kingdom lost its important eastern port of Cirebon.
The port of Sunda Kelapa, the cradle of Jakarta. For centuries it was the royal port of Sunda Kingdom serving the capital Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran 60 kilometres inland to the south until it fell to Demak and Cirebon forces in 1527.
The Port of Banten in the 16th century. The Islamic Sultanate of Banten was responsible for the demise of Hindu Sunda Kingdom, and supplant it as the dominant polity in western parts of Java in the following centuries.
Hindu Brahmin's ritual objects, including bronze bell and holy water container from Kawali, the historic capital of Galuh Kingdom.
Location of Pakuan Pajajaran copied from book "Kabudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran" Part 2", 2005
Makuta Binokasih Sanghyang Paké, the royal crown of Sunda kingdom. After the fall of Pajajaran to Banten, the crown was evacuated to Sumedang Larang and become their regalia.
A Sundanese woman retrieving rice from a leuit, Sundanese economy mainly rely on rice agriculture
The statue of Shiva Mahadeva from Cibodas village, Cicalengka Subdistrict, Bandung Regency, West Java. Possibly from the Sunda Kingdom period 8th to 9th century.
A bronze statue of Hindu god Shiva discovered in Talaga near Kuningan, West Java. Sunda kingdom period, circa 14th century.
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Lontar palm-leaf manuscript written in Sundanese

The name is similarly used by the Javanese to identify their western neighbour, also rival and enemy, as mentioned in Horren inscription (c.

The specific mention of Majapahit, Malacca and Demak, allow us to date the writing of the story in the 15th century, probably the latter part of this century, or the early 16th century at the latest.

The name "Sunda" appeared in Javanese source, the Pararaton, reported that in 1336, during the inauguration of his newly appointed position as Prime Minister, Gajah Mada declared Palapa oath, which stated his foreign policy to unify the archipelago under Majapahit domination.

Modern artist's impression of Hayam Wuruk

Hayam Wuruk

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Modern artist's impression of Hayam Wuruk
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

Hayam Wuruk (Sanskrit: हयम् वुरुक्, Kawi: ꦲꦪꦩ꧀ꦮꦸꦫꦸꦏ꧀) (1334–1389), also called Rajasanagara, Pa-ta-na-pa-na-wu, or Bhatara Prabhu after 1350, was a Javanese Hindu emperor from the Rajasa Dynasty and the 4th emperor of the Majapahit Empire.

Together with his prime minister Gajah Mada, he reigned the empire at the time of its greatest power.

East Java

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Province of Indonesia located in the easternmost hemisphere of Java island.

Province of Indonesia located in the easternmost hemisphere of Java island.

Statues of Singhasari temple, circa 1910s
The Ampel Mosque in Surabaya, the oldest surviving mosque in Java and second oldest in Indonesia, was built in 1421.
Operation Transom, destroyed Tanjung Perak in 1944.
Eastern Salient of Java mountain range view from Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park at early morning
Light snow and frost is common at East Java highlands over 1500 meters above sea level in middle of year during late night until morning.
Administrative Map of East Java
Surabaya is one of the industrial, transportational, commercial, and financial center of Indonesia.
Surabaya-Gempol Expressway
Penataran train in Malang railway station
Tanjung Perak at night
Terminal 1 of Juanda International Airport
Reog, famous Ponorogoan dance
Gandrung, iconic Banyuwangi dance
Islamic Santri students celebrate Santri day in Southern Malang
Deer in Baluran National Park
Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java
CLS Knights, most famous professional basketball club in Indonesia.
Islamic Ampel Mosque, Surabaya (circa 1920s)
Kayutangan Catholic Church, Downtown Malang (circa 1935)
Traditional East Java Christian Church, Mojowarno, Jombang
Tengger (Hindu temple) Pura Luhur Ponten, near Bromo Crater
Buddhist Maha Vihara Mojopahit, Trowulan, Mojokerto
Kwan Sing Bio Chinese Temple, Tuban
Jawa Timur Park in Batu
Madakaripura waterfall in Probolinggo
Ijen crater in Banyuwangi
Kedung Tumpang beach in Tulungagung
House of Sampoerna, Surabaya
Trowulan ancient city, Mojokerto
Maulana Malik Ibrahim tomb complex
Sempu Island, located in the south of Malang

East Java is inhabited by many different ethnic groups, such as the Javanese, Madurese and Chinese.

Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit from the 13th until the 15th century.

He was accompanied by the mahapatih Gajah Mada.

The kris consists of three parts; blade (wilah), hilt (hulu) and sheath (warangka)

Kris

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Asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron .

Asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron .

The kris consists of three parts; blade (wilah), hilt (hulu) and sheath (warangka)
Kris depicted on 9th century Borobudur bas-relief.
Kris as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Kris blacksmith's workshop depicted in 15th century Candi Sukuh.
The Kris of Knaud (1342 AD) from Majapahit period, exhibited at Tropenmuseum, Netherland
A kris of Majapahit from Majapahit era (13th–16th CE), in the collection of the Rijksmuseum, Netherland
Varieties of Javanese keris, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A lithograph depiction of kris blacksmith in Java, Dutch East Indies circa 1854.
Keris-making in TMII, Jakarta.
Kris worn by Yogyakarta Sultan's palace guard.
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The blade has thirteen luk.
The shiny nickelous pattern (pamor) on dark iron background visible on kris' blade.
Richly decorated Balinese kris hilt coated with gold, adorned with rubies.
Keris sheath of Ladrang Surakarta style.
Various ways of wearing kris in Javanese culture.
Barong dance performance with kris-wielding dancers and Rangda in Bali.
19th-century studio portrait of a native Javanese warrior with an iron kris-tipped spear (a tombak)
The Kris Taming Sari as seen third from the left, among the rest of the Perak royal regalia, 1907.
Javanese kris and scabbard displayed in Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Weapon of Java: Keris, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
Gusti Ngurah Ketut Djelantik, Lord of Buleleng, Bali (c. 1870), wore kris as a symbol of power and authority.
A Javanese man in court dress, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A Javanese chief, in his ordinary dress, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A Javanese man in war dress, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A Javanese man of the lower class, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
Sultan Hamengkubuwono VI, King of Yogyakarta Sultanate (1855-1877), dressed in royal majesty attire including his kris.
Portrait of Prince Diponegoro with kris, one of Indonesia's national heroes from Java, c. 1835.
Wayang kulit depicting Prabu Pandu Dewanata with his kris.
Wayang Klithik (Flat Wooden Puppet) figure of Damar Wulan with his kris, Tropenmuseum Collectons, before 1933
thumb| Wayang Golek Menak in Java, Jayengrana with his kris, a collection of Tropenmuseum, Netherland. before 2003.
Prime Minister of Malaysia Ismail Sabri Yaakob with Indonesian Defense Minister Prabowo Subianto while receiving his honorary visit at the Wisma Pertahanan on 30 October 2021.
Flag of Mataram Sultanate
Kris in UMNO flag
Emblem of Riau
Emblem of West Kalimantan
Emblem of Jambi
Emblem of Luwu Regency
Old emblem of Siam
Emblem of Selangor
Emblem of Terengganu
Flag of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
Flag of Kelantan
Emblem of Riau Islands

While the kris is commonly associated with the Javanese within Indonesian society, other ethnic communities are familiar with the weapon as part of their culture, such as the Balinese, Sundanese, Malay, Madurese, Banjar, Buginese, and Makassar people.

However, Raffles' (1817) study of the Candi Sukuh states that the kris recognized today came into existence around 1361 AD in the kingdom of Majapahit, East Java.

Kris knives were shown on the Age of Empires II expansion pack, Rise of the Rajas, on the cutscenes of the Gajah Mada campaign.