Galápagos Islands

Galapagos IslandsGalapagosGalápagosGalápagos archipelagoGalapagos archipelagoGalapagòsArchipiélago de ColónGalapagos IslandGalápagos Islands xeric scrubGalápagos island
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos, ), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km west of continental Ecuador.wikipedia
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Ecuador

ECURepublic of EcuadorEcuadorian
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos, ), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km west of continental Ecuador.
Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1000 km west of the mainland.

Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos, ), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km west of continental Ecuador.
The equator subdivides it into the North(ern) Pacific Ocean and South(ern) Pacific Ocean, with two exceptions: the Galápagos and Gilbert Islands, while straddling the equator, are deemed wholly within the South Pacific.

Archipelago

Island grouparchipelagicarchipelagos
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos, ), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km west of continental Ecuador.
Indonesia, the Galapagos, Japan, the Philippines, Maldives, the Balearic Isles, the Bahamas, the Aegean Islands, Hawaii, the Canary Islands, and the Azores are all examples of well-known archipelagos.

Inception of Darwin's theory

inception of his theoryconceive of his theoryconceived his theory
His observations and collections contributed to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution by means of natural selection.
At Darwin's geological début, the anatomist Richard Owen's reports on the fossils showed that extinct species were related to current species in the same locality, and the ornithologist John Gould showed that bird specimens from the Galápagos Islands were of distinct species related to places, not just varieties.

Galápagos Province

GalápagosGalapagosGalápagos Islands
The Galápagos Islands and their surrounding waters form the Galápagos Province of Ecuador, the Galápagos National Park, and the Galápagos Marine Reserve.
The province administers the Galápagos Islands, a group of tiny volcanic islands that sit on the equator, famous for their unique biodiversity popularized by naturalist Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution.

Galápagos Marine Reserve

Galapagos Marine ReserveGalápagos Marine Reserve areamarine reserve
The Galápagos Islands and their surrounding waters form the Galápagos Province of Ecuador, the Galápagos National Park, and the Galápagos Marine Reserve.
The Galápagos Islands and the surrounding waters represent one of the world’s most unusual ecosystems and are rich areas of biodiversity.

Second voyage of HMS Beagle

second voyage of HMS ''Beaglevoyage of the ''BeagleBeagle'' voyage
The islands are known for their large number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the second voyage of HMS Beagle.
The commander would then determine his own route west: season permitting, he could survey the Galápagos Islands.

Galápagos National Park

Galapagos National ParkGalápagos National Park ServiceGalapagos National Park Service
The Galápagos Islands and their surrounding waters form the Galápagos Province of Ecuador, the Galápagos National Park, and the Galápagos Marine Reserve.
The government of Ecuador has designated 97% of the land area of the Galápagos Islands as the country's first national park.

Western Hemisphere

WesternhemisphereAmericas
The Galápagos Islands (official name: Archipiélago de Colón, other Spanish name: Las Islas Galápagos, ), part of the Republic of Ecuador, are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906 km west of continental Ecuador.
The center of the Western Hemisphere is located in the Pacific Ocean at the intersection of the 90th meridian west and the Equator, among the Galápagos Islands.

The Encantadas

The Encantadas, or Enchanted Isles
The older names remained in use in English-language publications, including Herman Melville's The Encantadas of 1854.
First published in Putnam's Magazine in 1854, it consists of ten philosophical "Sketches" on the Encantadas, or Galápagos Islands.

Volcán Wolf

WolfWolf VolcanoWolf (volcano)
Straddling the equator, islands in the chain are located in both the northern and southern hemispheres, with Volcán Wolf and Volcán Ecuador on Isla Isabela being directly on the equator.
Wolf Volcano (Volcán Wolf), also known as Mount Whiton, is the highest peak in the Galapagos Islands.

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
The islands are known for their large number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the second voyage of HMS Beagle.
On the geologically new Galápagos Islands, Darwin looked for evidence attaching wildlife to an older "centre of creation", and found mockingbirds allied to those in Chile but differing from island to island.

Darwin Island

DarwinCulpepper Island (Galápagos)Darwin (Culpepper) Island
Española Island, the southernmost islet of the archipelago, and Darwin Island, the northernmost one, are spread out over a distance of 220 km.
Darwin Island (Spanish: Isla Darwin) is among the smallest in the Galápagos Archipelago with an area of just 1 km2.

Baltra Island

BaltraBaltra (South Seymour) IslandGalápagos Islands
Five of the islands are inhabited: Baltra, Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal and Santa Cruz.
Baltra Island, or Isla Baltra, is a small island of the Galápagos Islands.

Española Island

EspañolaHood IslandEspanola
Española Island, the southernmost islet of the archipelago, and Darwin Island, the northernmost one, are spread out over a distance of 220 km.
Española Island (Spanish: Isla Española) is part of the Galápagos Islands.

San Cristóbal Island

San CristóbalSan CristobalChatham Island
Five of the islands are inhabited: Baltra, Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal and Santa Cruz. In April 1888, a Navy-manned research vessel assigned to the United States Fish Commission, briefly touched eight islands in the Galapagos group for specimens; this included Wreck Bay on Chatham Island (now San Cristóbal Island) on 4 April and Charles Island (now Floreana Island) on 8 April.
San Cristóbal (Chatham) is the easternmost island in the Galápagos archipelago, as well as one of the oldest geologically.

Seymour Airport

Seymour Island Army AirfieldNAAF GalapagosSeymour Island Airfield
Options for air travel to the Galápagos are limited to two islands: San Cristobal (San Cristóbal Airport) and Baltra (Seymour Airport).
Seymour Airport is an airport serving the island of Baltra, one of the Galápagos Islands in Ecuador.

Ambrose Cowley

William Ambrose Cowle(y)William Ambrosia CowleyWilliam Cowley
The first crude map of the islands was made in 1684 by the buccaneer Ambrose Cowley, who named the individual islands after some of his fellow pirates or after British royalty and noblemen.
William Ambrosia Cowley was a 17th-century English buccaneer who surveyed the Galápagos Islands during his circumnavigation of the world while serving under several Captains such as John Eaton, John Cook, and later Edward Davis.

Hotspot (geology)

hotspothotspotshot spot
Furthermore, the Galápagos Hotspot is at the northern boundary of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province while the Easter Hotspot is on the southern boundary.
This effort has been vexed by the lack of very long chains, by the fact that many are not time-progressive (e.g. the Galápagos) and by the fact that hotspots do not appear to be fixed relative to one another (e.g. Hawaii and Iceland.

Galápagos hotspot

Galapagos RiftCocos RidgeGalapagos hotspot
It is also atop the Galápagos hotspot, a place where the Earth's crust is being melted from below by a mantle plume, creating volcanoes.
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.

Galápagos tortoise

Galapagos tortoiseGalapagos giant tortoiseGalápagos giant tortoise
The islands were named "Insulae de los Galopegos" (Islands of the Tortoises) in reference to the giant tortoises found there.
Today, giant tortoises exist on only two remote archipelagos: the Galápagos Islands 1000 km due west of mainland Ecuador; and Aldabrachelys gigantea of Aldabra in the Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Tanzania.

Marine iguana

marine iguanasAmblyrhynchusAmblyrhynchus cristatus
The marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), also known as the sea iguana, saltwater iguana, or Galápagos marine iguana, is a species of iguana found only on the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) that has the ability, unique among modern lizards, to forage in the sea, making it a marine reptile.

Fernandina Island

FernandinaFernandina (Narborough) Islandisland of Fernandina
While the older islands have disappeared below the sea as they moved away from the mantle plume, the youngest islands, Isabela and Fernandina, are still being formed.
Fernandina Island (named after King Ferdinand of Spain, the sponsor of Christopher Columbus) (formerly known in English as Narborough Island, after John Narborough) is the third largest, and youngest, island of the Galápagos Islands, as well as the furthest west.

Robert FitzRoy

FitzRoyCaptain FitzRoyGovernor FitzRoy
These names were used in the authoritative navigation charts of the islands prepared during the Beagle survey under captain Robert FitzRoy, and in Darwin's popular book The Voyage of the Beagle.
FitzRoy continued his voyage, sailing on to the Galapagos, Tahiti, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa.

Galapagos penguin

Galápagos penguinpenguinGalápagos penguins
The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is a penguin endemic to the Galápagos Islands.