Galápagos hotspot

Galapagos RiftCocos RidgeGalapagos hotspothotspotCocosGalápagosGalapagosGalapagos Rift ZoneGalápagos Rift
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.wikipedia
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Hotspot (geology)

hotspothotspotshot spot
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.
Hawaii, Réunion, Yellowstone, Galápagos, and Iceland are some of the most active volcanic regions to which the hypothesis is applied.

Galápagos Islands

Galapagos IslandsGalapagosGalápagos
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.
It is also atop the Galápagos hotspot, a place where the Earth's crust is being melted from below by a mantle plume, creating volcanoes.

Carnegie Ridge

Carnegie
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.
The ridge is thought to be a result of the passage of the Nazca Plate over the Galapagos hotspot.

Cocos Plate

CocosCoco Ridge mountain chainCocos plates
The hotspot is located near the Equator on the Nazca Plate not far from the divergent plate boundary with the Cocos Plate. It is located very close to the spreading ridge between the Cocos and Nazca plates; the hotspot interacts with both plates and the spreading ridge over the last twenty million years as the relative location of the hotspot in relation to the plates has varied.
The Cocos Plate was created by sea floor spreading along the East Pacific Rise and the Cocos Ridge, specifically in a complicated area geologists call the Cocos-Nazca spreading system.

Fernandina Island

FernandinaFernandina (Narborough) Islandisland of Fernandina
The PLUME lavas are found predominately in the west of the islands, around Ferdinandina and Isabela Islands, which is near to the current position of the hotspot.
Like the others, the island was formed by the Galápagos hotspot.

Volcán Wolf

WolfWolf VolcanoWolf (volcano)
In a process similar to the formation of the Hawaiian islands, the Galapagos (along with associated hotspot) appear to be created from a mantle plume.

Cerro Azul (Ecuador volcano)

Cerro AzulBlue Hill
The Galapagos Islands are believed to be formed from a mantle plume which creates a hotspot of volcanic activity away from plate boundaries where islands then form above it, similar to process that has created the Hawaiian islands.

Sierra Negra (Galápagos)

Sierra NegraSierra Negra Volcano
The Sierra Negra like the other volcanoes on Isabela is believed to have been created from a mantle plume which has created the hotspot.

Isabela Island (Galápagos)

Isabela IslandIsabelaAlbemarle Island
The PLUME lavas are found predominately in the west of the islands, around Ferdinandina and Isabela Islands, which is near to the current position of the hotspot.
One of the youngest islands, Isabela is located on the western edge of the archipelago near the Galápagos hotspot.

Alcedo Volcano

AlcedoVolcán Alcedo
Alcedo, like the other volcanoes in the Galapagos, has been formed as part of the Galapagos hotspot which is a mantle plume resulting in a hotspot.

Volcanoes of the Galápagos Islands

*Volcanoes of the Galápagos Islands
They are driven by the Galápagos hotspot, and are between 4.2 million and 700,000 years of age.

Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesvolcanic igneous activity
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.

Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.

Equator

equatorial planeThe Equator
The hotspot is located near the Equator on the Nazca Plate not far from the divergent plate boundary with the Cocos Plate.

Nazca Plate

NazcaNazca platesNazca tectonic plate
The hotspot is located near the Equator on the Nazca Plate not far from the divergent plate boundary with the Cocos Plate. It is located very close to the spreading ridge between the Cocos and Nazca plates; the hotspot interacts with both plates and the spreading ridge over the last twenty million years as the relative location of the hotspot in relation to the plates has varied.

Galapagos Triple Junction

The tectonic setting of the hotspot is complicated by the Galapagos Triple Junction of the Nazca and Cocos plates with the Pacific Plate.

Pacific Plate

PacificPacific tectonic platePacific crust
The tectonic setting of the hotspot is complicated by the Galapagos Triple Junction of the Nazca and Cocos plates with the Pacific Plate.

Geophysics

geophysicistgeophysicalgeophysicists
In 1963, Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilson proposed the "hotspot" theory to explain why although most earthquake and volcanic activity occurs at plate boundaries, some occurs far from plate boundaries.

John Tuzo Wilson

J. Tuzo WilsonTuzo WilsonJ.T. Wilson
In 1963, Canadian geophysicist J. Tuzo Wilson proposed the "hotspot" theory to explain why although most earthquake and volcanic activity occurs at plate boundaries, some occurs far from plate boundaries.

Seamount

seamountssea mountseamount chain
This volcanism builds up seamounts that eventually rise above the ocean current, forming volcanic islands.

Plate tectonics

tectonic platesplate tectonictectonic
As the islands slowly moved away from the hotspot, by the motion of sliding plates as described by the theory of plate tectonics, the magma supply is cut, and the volcano goes dormant.

Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain

Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chainEmperor SeamountsHawaiian – Emperor seamount chain
The theory was developed to explain the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain, where historic islands could be traced to the northwest in the direction that the Pacific Plate is moving.

List of tectonic plates

tectonic plateMinorplate
It is located very close to the spreading ridge between the Cocos and Nazca plates; the hotspot interacts with both plates and the spreading ridge over the last twenty million years as the relative location of the hotspot in relation to the plates has varied.

Cocos Island

CocosIsla del CocoCocos Island moist forests
However, Cocos Island at the northern end of the ridge is only 2 million years old, and was therefore created at a time well after the ridge had moved away from the hotspot.

Darwin Island

DarwinCulpepper Island (Galápagos)Darwin (Culpepper) Island
It is found on the Wolf and Darwin Islands and the seamounts that connect them along the Wolf Darwin Lineament.