Galapagos penguin

Galápagos penguinpenguinGalápagos penguinsSpheniscus mendiculusGalapagosGalapagos penguinsPenguinswarm-weather penguin
The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is a penguin endemic to the Galápagos Islands.wikipedia
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Penguin

penguinsSpheniscidaeSphenisciformes
The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is a penguin endemic to the Galápagos Islands.
They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with only one species, the Galapagos penguin, found north of the equator.

Galápagos Islands

Galapagos IslandsGalapagosGalápagos
The Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) is a penguin endemic to the Galápagos Islands.

Banded penguin

SpheniscusSpheniscus urbinaiS. urbinai
The Galápagos penguin is one of the banded penguins, the other species of which live mostly on the coasts of Africa and mainland South America.

Cromwell Current

Equatorial UndercurrentEquatorial Undercurrent (EUC)North Equatorial Undercurrent
The cool waters of the Humboldt and Cromwell Currents allow it to survive despite the tropical latitude.
This brings food supplies to the surface for Galápagos penguin.

Bartolomé Island

BartoloméBartolomé (Bartholomew) IslandBartolome
Ninety percent of Galápagos penguins live on Fernandina Island and the west coast of Isabela Island, in the western part of the archipelago, but small populations also occur on Santiago, Bartolomé, northern Santa Cruz, and Floreana.
Galápagos penguins are frequently seen, and a small cave behind Pinnacle Rock houses a breeding colony.

1982–83 El Niño event

1982–83El Niño event1982-83
This was especially detrimental during the 1982-83 El Niño, where a decline in population of 77% was observed.
It led to declines of 77% among Galápagos penguins and 49% among flightless cormorants.

Isabela Island (Galápagos)

Isabela IslandIsabelaAlbemarle Island
Ninety percent of Galápagos penguins live on Fernandina Island and the west coast of Isabela Island, in the western part of the archipelago, but small populations also occur on Santiago, Bartolomé, northern Santa Cruz, and Floreana. On Isabela Island, introduced cats, dogs, and rats attack penguins and destroy their nests.
Other noted species include penguins, cormorants, marine iguanas, boobies, pelicans and Sally Lightfoot crabs abound.

Equator

equatorial planeThe Equator
It is the only penguin found north of the equator.

Humboldt Current

HumboldtPeruHumboldt ocean current
The cool waters of the Humboldt and Cromwell Currents allow it to survive despite the tropical latitude.

Little penguin

little penguinslittle blue penguinfairy penguins
It is the second smallest species of penguin, after the little penguin.

Fernandina Island

FernandinaFernandina (Narborough) Islandisland of Fernandina
Ninety percent of Galápagos penguins live on Fernandina Island and the west coast of Isabela Island, in the western part of the archipelago, but small populations also occur on Santiago, Bartolomé, northern Santa Cruz, and Floreana.

Santiago Island (Galápagos)

SantiagoSantiago IslandJames Island
Ninety percent of Galápagos penguins live on Fernandina Island and the west coast of Isabela Island, in the western part of the archipelago, but small populations also occur on Santiago, Bartolomé, northern Santa Cruz, and Floreana.

Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos)

Santa CruzSanta Cruz IslandIsla Santa Cruz
Ninety percent of Galápagos penguins live on Fernandina Island and the west coast of Isabela Island, in the western part of the archipelago, but small populations also occur on Santiago, Bartolomé, northern Santa Cruz, and Floreana.

Floreana Island

FloreanaCharles IslandFloreana (Charles or Santa María) Island
Ninety percent of Galápagos penguins live on Fernandina Island and the west coast of Isabela Island, in the western part of the archipelago, but small populations also occur on Santiago, Bartolomé, northern Santa Cruz, and Floreana.

El Niño

El NinoEl Nino-Southern OscillationEl Niño Southern Oscillation
Air temperatures in the Galápagos remain in the range 15-28 C. During El Niño seasons, the penguins defer breeding because their food becomes less abundant; this makes the chances of raising offspring successfully unfavorable compared to the chances of dying in the attempt.

Sea surface temperature

sea surface temperatureswater temperaturesocean temperature
The penguins usually breed when the sea surface temperature is below 25 C. The strong tropical sun is problematic for this species.

Thermoregulation

body temperaturethermoregulatethermoregulatory
Their primary means of cooling off is going in the water, but other behavioral adaptations for thermoregulation come into play when they must remain on land.

Louis L. Mowbray

MowbrayLouis Leon Arthur Mowbray
Bermudian naturalist Louis L. Mowbray was the first to successfully breed the Galápagos penguins in captivity.

Charles Darwin Foundation

Charles Darwin Research StationCDRS
The species is endangered, with an estimated population size of around 1,500 individuals in 2004, according to a survey by the Charles Darwin Research Station.

Yellow-eyed penguin

Hoiho (yellow-eyed penguin)Megadyptes antipodesHoiho
It is currently the rarest penguin species (a status often falsely attributed to the yellow-eyed penguin).

El Niño–Southern Oscillation

El Niño-Southern OscillationEl NiñoENSO
Population levels are influenced by the effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation, which reduces the availability of shoaling fish, leading to low reproduction or starvation.

Cat

domestic catcatsFelis catus
On Isabela Island, introduced cats, dogs, and rats attack penguins and destroy their nests.

Rat

ratsgiant ratSpecies of rat
On Isabela Island, introduced cats, dogs, and rats attack penguins and destroy their nests.

Bycatch

caught incidentallyby-catchincidental capture
Illegal fishing activity may interrupt the penguins’ nesting, and they are often caught in fishing nets by mistake.

Oryzomyini

oryzomyinerice ratoryzomyines
On land, the penguins may fall prey to crabs, snakes, rice rats, cats, Galapagos hawks, and short-eared owls.