Galen

Galenic medicineClaudius GalenusGalen of PergamonClaudius Aelius GalenusGalenistsAelius Galenusancient Greek physicianClaudius Galenus (Galen)Galen of PergamumGalen's influence on Islamic medicine
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – c. 200/c. 216), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.wikipedia
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De humani corporis fabrica

De humani corporis fabrica libri septemAndreas Vesalius's ''FabricaOn the Structure of the Human Body
His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations.
It was a major advance in the history of anatomy over the long-dominant work of Galen, and presented itself as such.

Hippocrates

HippocraticHippocrates of KosHippocratean
Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism (also known as the four humors – black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm), as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates.
According to Galen, a later physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates (Hippocrates III and IV).

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.
Claudius Galenus (c. ~130–200 AD), known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body.

Pergamon

PergamumPergamenePergamese
Born in Pergamon (present-day Bergama, Turkey), Galen travelled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors.
Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion.

Dissection

dissecteddissectdissecting
His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations.
Galen, for example, dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans.

Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn an-NafisTheologus AutodidactusAli ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi
Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system remained unchallenged until ca. 1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina (Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon), in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation.
What distinguish the book most is the confident language which Ibn al-Nafis shows throughout the text and his boldness to challenge the most established medical authorities of the time like Galen and Avicenna.

Commodus

Emperor CommodusCaesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus AugustusCommodia
He was left behind to act as physician to the imperial heir Commodus.
He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen, who treated many of Commodus' common illnesses.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
200/c. 216), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
The importance of a good diet to health was recognized by medical writers such as Galen (2nd century AD), whose treatises included one On Barley Soup.

Asclepeion

Asclepieiaasclepieionasclepion
Again, no expense was spared, and following his earlier liberal education, at 16 he began studies at the prestigious local sanctuary or Asclepieum dedicated to Asclepius, god of medicine, as a θεραπευτής (therapeutes, or attendant) for four years.
Prior to becoming the personal physician to the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Galen treated and studied at the famed asclepeion at Pergamon.

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius AntoninusMarcusMarcus Aurelius Caesar
Rome had engaged in foreign wars in 161; Marcus Aurelius and his colleague Lucius Verus were in the north fighting the Marcomanni.
Some other literary sources provide specific details: the writings of the physician Galen on the habits of the Antonine elite, the orations of Aelius Aristides on the temper of the times, and the constitutions preserved in the Digest and Codex Justinianus on Marcus' legal work.

Four temperaments

phlegmaticcholericsanguine
Galen promoted this theory and the typology of human temperaments.
Galen (AD 129 – c. 200) developed the first typology of temperament in his dissertation De temperamentis, and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in humans.

Empiric school

EmpiriciEmpiricistEmpirical school
Galen was very interested in the debate between the rationalist and empiricist medical sects, and his use of direct observation, dissection and vivisection represents a complex middle ground between the extremes of those two viewpoints.
Galen noted that the Empirics approached medicine exactly as the Pyrrhonists approached the whole of life.

Aelius Nicon

Nicon
The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher.
Nicon is known only as the father of the ancient anatomist and philosopher, Galen.

Aeschrion of Pergamon

Aeschrion
There he came under the influence of men like Aeschrion of Pergamon, Stratonicus and Satyrus.
He was one of Galen's tutors, who says that he belonged to the sect of the Empirici, and that he had a great knowledge of pharmacy and materia medica.

Medicine

medicalmedical sciencemedicinal
Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism (also known as the four humors – black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm), as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates.
The Greek physician Galen was also one of the greatest surgeons of the ancient world and performed many audacious operations, including brain and eye surgeries.

Anatomy

anatomistanatomicalanatomically
Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.
In the 2nd century, Galen of Pergamum, an anatomist, clinician, writer and philosopher, wrote the final and highly influential anatomy treatise of ancient times.

Rete mirabile

retia mirabiliarete mirabilisrete
Galen also believed in the existence of a group of blood vessels he called the rete mirabile in the carotid sinus.
This term was coined by Galen.

Barbary macaque

Barbary apeBarbary apesBarbary monkey
His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations.
Many of the mistaken ideas about human anatomy contained in the writings of Galen are apparently due to his use of these animals, the only anthropoid available to him, in dissections.

Humorism

humorshumoursfour humours
Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism (also known as the four humors – black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm), as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates.
Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries largely through the influence of the writings of Galen (129–201 AD) and was decisively displaced only in 1858 by Rudolf Virchow's newly published theories of cellular pathology.

Erasistratus

Erasistratus of ChiosErasistrateanErasistrateans
This was sharply criticised by the Erasistrateans, who predicted dire outcomes, believing that it was not blood but pneuma that flowed in the veins.
Erasistratus is generally supposed to have been born at Ioulis on the island of Ceos, though Stephanus of Byzantium refers to him as a native of Cos; Galen, as a native of Chios; and the emperor Julian, as a native of Samos.

Aelius Aristides

AristidesP. Aelius AristeidesPublius Aelius Aristides
It was also the haunt of notable people such as Claudius Charax the historian, Aelius Aristides the orator, Polemo the sophist, and Cuspius Rufinus the Consul.
Aristides spent his last years in seclusion at his country estates in Mysia, dying in 181 CE. Living a generation after Aristides, the most famous physician of antiquity, Galen, wrote: “As to them whose souls are naturally strong and whose bodies are weak, I have seen only a few of them.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
When they refused, Galen performed the surgery himself and in so doing won the favor of the High Priest of Asia.
The Greek Galen was one of the greatest surgeons of the ancient world and performed many audacious operations – including brain and eye surgery – that were not tried again for almost two millennia.

Bloodletting

bleedingblood-lettingblood letting
At first reluctantly but then with increasing vigour, Galen promoted Hippocratic teaching, including venesection and bloodletting, then unknown in Rome.
During the Roman Empire, the Greek physician Galen, who subscribed to the teachings of Hippocrates, advocated physician-initiated bloodletting.

Pulmonary circulation

pulmonary vesselspulmonary circuitalveolar capillaries
Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system remained unchallenged until ca. 1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina (Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon), in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation.
The Greek physician Galen (129 - c. 210 CE) provided the next insights into pulmonary circulation.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system remained unchallenged until ca. 1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina (Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon), in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation.
In 2nd century AD Rome, the Greek physician Galen knew that blood vessels carried blood and identified venous (dark red) and arterial (brighter and thinner) blood, each with distinct and separate functions.