Galena

argentiferous galenagaleniteleadlead glancelead orelead sulfidenative lead sulfidegalena (PbS)Galena, applied use in electronics ofgalēna
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide (PbS).wikipedia
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Lead

Pblead orelead mining
It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver.
Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome.

Sulfide minerals

sulfide mineralsulfidessulfide
Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distributed sulfide minerals.

Lead(II) sulfide

PbSlead sulfidelead sulphide
Galena, also called lead glance, is the natural mineral form of lead(II) sulfide (PbS).
Galena is the principal ore and the most important compound of lead.

Sphalerite

zinc blendezincblendeblende
It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite, calcite and fluorite.
It is usually found in association with galena, pyrite, and other sulfides along with calcite, dolomite, and fluorite.

Fluorite

fluorsparBlue Johnfluorospar
It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite, calcite and fluorite.
It may occur as a vein deposit, especially with metallic minerals, where it often forms a part of the gangue (the surrounding "host-rock" in which valuable minerals occur) and may be associated with galena, sphalerite, barite, quartz, and calcite.

Smelting

smeltersmeltedsmelt
Because of its somewhat low melting point, it was easy to liberate by smelting.

Silver

Agsilver orenative silver
It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver.
By the time of the Greek and Roman civilizations, silver coins were a staple of the economy: the Greeks were already extracting silver from galena by the 7th century BC, and the rise of Athens was partly made possible by the nearby silver mines at Laurium, from which they extracted about 30 tonnes a year from 600 to 300 BC.

Broken Hill ore deposit

Broken HillBroken Hill depositBroken Hill Lode
Noted deposits include those at Freiberg in Saxony; Cornwall, the Mendips in Somerset, Derbyshire, and Cumberland in England; the Madan and Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria; the Sullivan Mine of British Columbia; Broken Hill and Mount Isa in Australia; and the ancient mines of Sardinia.
Rasp reported finding massive galena, sphalerite, cerussite and other oxide minerals, but was most concerned with the galena, a primary source of lead.

Galena, Illinois

GalenaGalena, ILIllinois
Galena is the official state mineral of the U.S. states of Kansas, Missouri and Wisconsin; the former mining communities of Galena, Kansas, and Galena, Illinois, take their names from deposits of this mineral.
The city is named for the mineral galena, which was in the ore that formed the basis for the region's early mining economy.

Galena, Kansas

GalenaKansas
Galena is the official state mineral of the U.S. states of Kansas, Missouri and Wisconsin; the former mining communities of Galena, Kansas, and Galena, Illinois, take their names from deposits of this mineral.
The city was actually known as Short Creek when first established because of a nearby creek and was known as Bonanza briefly before taking the present name of Galena in 1877, which is named after the lead ore galena found in the area.

Ore

oresore depositmineral deposit
It is the most important ore of lead and an important source of silver.

Southeast Missouri Lead District

Lead BeltOld Lead BeltLead Belt region
In the United States, it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri, and in the Driftless Area of Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin.
It contains the highest concentration of galena (lead(II) sulfide) in the world as well as significant economic quantities of zinc, copper and silver and currently sub-economic quantities of metals such as cadmium, nickel and cobalt.

Carbonate-hosted lead-zinc ore deposits

Mississippi Valley-TypeCarbonate hosted lead zinc ore depositsMississippi Valley-type deposits
In the United States, it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri, and in the Driftless Area of Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin.
Sulfide minerals such as galena, sphalerite, marcasite and pyrite thus form.

Cubic crystal system

cubicisometricface-centered cubic
It crystallizes in the cubic crystal system often showing octahedral forms. The galena group is named after its most common member, with other isometric members that include manganese bearing alabandite and niningerite.
Other terms for hexoctahedral are: normal class, holohedral, ditesseral central class, galena type.

Sulfur

sulphurSbrimstone
Divalent lead (Pb) cations and sulfur (S) anions form a close-packed cubic unit cell much like the mineral halite of the halide mineral group.
Common naturally occurring sulfur compounds include the sulfide minerals, such as pyrite (iron sulfide), cinnabar (mercury sulfide), galena (lead sulfide), sphalerite (zinc sulfide), and stibnite (antimony sulfide); and the sulfate minerals, such as gypsum (calcium sulfate), alunite (potassium aluminium sulfate), and barite (barium sulfate).

Wisconsin

WIState of WisconsinGeography of Wisconsin
Galena is the official state mineral of the U.S. states of Kansas, Missouri and Wisconsin; the former mining communities of Galena, Kansas, and Galena, Illinois, take their names from deposits of this mineral. In the United States, it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri, and in the Driftless Area of Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin.

Altaite

The lead telluride mineral altaite has the same crystal structure as galena.
Altaite is in the galena group of minerals as it shares many of properties of galena.

Anglesite

Within the weathering or oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate).
It occurs as an oxidation product of primary lead sulfide ore, galena.

Alabandite

alabandine
The galena group is named after its most common member, with other isometric members that include manganese bearing alabandite and niningerite.
It occurs with acanthite, calcite, chalcopyrite, galena, pyrite, quartz, rhodochrosite, rhodonite, sphalerite and native tellurium.

Kohl (cosmetics)

kohlKajalSirma
One of the oldest uses of galena was in the eye cosmetic kohl.
Galena eye paint (later termed Kohl in Arabic from the Akkadian word for the cosmetic) was widely applied in Ancient Egypt.

Crystal radio

crystal setcrystadinecrystal radio receiver
It was used as the crystal in crystal radio receivers, in which it was used as a point-contact diode capable of rectifying alternating current to detect the radio signals.
It is named for its most important component, a crystal detector, originally made from a piece of crystalline mineral such as galena.

Missouri

MOState of MissouriMissouri, USA
Galena is the official state mineral of the U.S. states of Kansas, Missouri and Wisconsin; the former mining communities of Galena, Kansas, and Galena, Illinois, take their names from deposits of this mineral. In the United States, it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri, and in the Driftless Area of Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin.

Crystal detector

cat's-whisker detectorcat's whisker detectorcat's whisker
The galena crystal was used with a sharp wire, known as a "cat's whisker" in contact with it.
The most common type was the so-called cat whisker detector, which consisted of a piece of crystalline mineral, usually galena (lead sulfide), with a fine wire touching its surface.

Driftless Area

Driftless ZoneDriftless RegionCoulee Region
In the United States, it occurs most notably in the Mississippi Valley type deposits of the Lead Belt in southeastern Missouri, and in the Driftless Area of Illinois, Iowa and Wisconsin.
The city of Galena, Illinois was named after the lead sulfide mineral Galena.

Lead smelting

lead smeltersmelterlead furnace
Galena, the most common mineral of lead, is primarily lead sulfide (PbS).