Galileo (spacecraft)

GalileoGalileo spacecraftGalileo'' spacecraftGalileo missionGalileo'' orbiterGalileo probeGalileo space probeGalileo'' probeGalileo'' missionGalileo Project
Galileo was an American uncrewed spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.wikipedia
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Jupiter

JovianGioveplanet Jupiter
Galileo was an American uncrewed spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter.

Uncrewed spacecraft

Unmannedunmanned spacecraftuncrewed
Galileo was an American uncrewed spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.

Minor-planet moon

moonasteroid moonbinary
Despite suffering major antenna problems, Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around 243 Ida.

Io (moon)

IoAtmosphere of IoIo torus
Io's volcanism and plasma interactions with Jupiter's atmosphere were also recorded.
The Galileo spacecraft performed several close flybys in the 1990s and early 2000s, obtaining data about Io's interior structure and surface composition.

Europa (moon)

EuropaEuropanLife on Europa
The data Galileo collected supported the theory of a liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa, and there were indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto.
In May 2018, astronomers provided supporting evidence of water plume activity on Europa, based on an updated analysis of data obtained from the Galileo space probe, which orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003.

Callisto (moon)

CallistoAtmosphere of Callistofourth Galilean moon of Jupiter
The data Galileo collected supported the theory of a liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa, and there were indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto.
Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km.

Galileo Probe

GalileoGalileo'' probeGalileo space probe
After releasing its atmospheric probe on July 13, 1995, the Galileo orbiter became the first man-made satellite of Jupiter at 01:16 UTC on December 8, 1995, after it fired its main engine to enter a 198-day parking orbit.
The Galileo Probe was an atmospheric-entry probe carried by the main Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter, where it directly entered a hot spot and returned data from the planet.

951 Gaspra

Gaspra
Despite suffering major antenna problems, Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around 243 Ida.
Gaspra was the first asteroid ever to be closely approached when it was visited by the Galileo spacecraft, which flew by on its way to Jupiter on 29 October 1991.

Ganymede (moon)

GanymedeNicholson RegioAtmosphere of Ganymede
The data Galileo collected supported the theory of a liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa, and there were indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto.
The Voyager probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, refined measurements of its size, while Galileo discovered its underground ocean and magnetic field.

243 Ida

DactylIda(243) Ida I Dactyl
Despite suffering major antenna problems, Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around 243 Ida.
On 28 August 1993, Ida was visited by the unmanned Galileo spacecraft while en route to Jupiter.

Hughes Aircraft Company

Hughes AircraftHughesHughes Space and Communications
NASA's Ames Research Center managed the atmospheric probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company.
The company was known for producing, among other products, the Hughes H-4 Hercules Spruce Goose aircraft, the atmospheric entry probe carried by the Galileo spacecraft, and the AIM-4 Falcon guided missile.

STS-34

34Mission STS-34STS 34
It was finally launched on October 18, 1989, by on the STS-34 mission.
During the mission, the Jupiter-bound Galileo probe was deployed into space.

Canceled Space Shuttle missions

Cancelled Space Shuttle missionsSTS-10STS-51-H
Early plans called for a launch on on what was then codenamed STS-23 in January 1982, but delays in the development of the Space Shuttle allowed more time for development of the probe.

Amalthea (moon)

AmaltheaJupiter Vmoons of Jupiter
NASA engineers were able to recover the damaged tape recorder electronics, and Galileo continued to return scientific data until it was deorbited in 2003, performing one last scientific experiment: a measurement of the moon Amalthea's mass as the spacecraft swung by it.
Close range images of Amalthea were taken in 1979 by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, and in more detail by the Galileo orbiter in the 1990s.

Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9

Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9Shoemaker-Levy 9Shoemaker–Levy 9
In 1994, Galileo observed Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9's collision with Jupiter.
Several space observatories did the same, including the Hubble Space Telescope, the ROSAT X-ray-observing satellite, and significantly the Galileo spacecraft, then on its way to a rendezvous with Jupiter scheduled for 1995.

AMD Am2900

Am2901AMD 29012901
The Galileo Attitude and Articulation Control System (AACSE) was controlled by two Itek Advanced Technology Airborne Computers (ATAC), built using radiation-hardened 2901s.

RCA 1802

CDP 18011802CDP 1802
The spacecraft was controlled by six RCA 1802 COSMAC microprocessor CPUs: four on the spun side and two on the despun side.
The 1802 was used in many spacecraft and space science programs, experiments, projects and modules such as the Galileo spacecraft, various Earth-orbiting satellites and satellites carrying amateur radio.

Venus

Morning Starevening starplanet Venus
Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter.
Several other Venus flybys took place in the 1980s and 1990s that increased the understanding of Venus, including Vega 1 (1985), Vega 2 (1985), Galileo (1990), Magellan (1994), Cassini–Huygens (1998), and MESSENGER (2006).

Galileo Galilei

GalileoGalileanGalilei
Named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, it consisted of an orbiter and an entry probe.
Other scientific endeavours and principles are named after Galileo including the Galileo spacecraft, the first spacecraft to enter orbit around Jupiter, the proposed Galileo global satellite navigation system, the transformation between inertial systems in classical mechanics denoted Galilean transformation and the Gal (unit), sometimes known as the Galileo, which is a non-SI unit of acceleration.

Inertial Upper Stage

IUS
The Inertial Upper Stage booster was going to be used at first, but this changed to the Centaur booster, then back to IUS after Challenger.

Gravity assist

gravitational slingshotgravitational assistslingshot
Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter.
The Galileo spacecraft was launched by NASA in 1989 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis.

CMOS

RF CMOScomplementary metal–oxide–semiconductorcomplementary MOS
This microprocessor was the first low-power CMOS processor chip, quite on a par with the 8-bit 6502 that was being built into the Apple II desktop computer at that time.
NASA's Galileo spacecraft, sent to orbit Jupiter in 1989, used the RCA 1802 CMOS microprocessor due to low power consumption.

Asteroid

asteroidsminor bodyMinor Planet
Despite suffering major antenna problems, Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around 243 Ida.
The first true asteroid to be photographed in close-up was 951 Gaspra in 1991, followed in 1993 by 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl, all of which were imaged by the Galileo probe en route to Jupiter.

Centaur (rocket stage)

CentaurCentaur upper stageCentaur-G
The Centaur-G liquid hydrogen-fueled booster stage allowed a direct trajectory to Jupiter.
To enable its installation in shuttle payload bays, the diameter of the Centaur-G's hydrogen tank was increased to 14 ft, with the LOX tank diameter remaining at 10 ft. Centaur-G was planned to launch the Galileo and Ulysses robotic probes, with a shortened version planned for U.S. DoD payloads and the Magellan probe to Venus.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorprocessors
The spacecraft was controlled by six RCA 1802 COSMAC microprocessor CPUs: four on the spun side and two on the despun side.
A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was RCA's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (introduced in 1976), which was used on board the Galileo probe to Jupiter (launched 1989, arrived 1995).