Galileo Galilei

1636 portrait by Justus Sustermans
Galileo's elder daughter Virginia was particularly devoted to her father
Galileo's "cannocchiali" telescopes at the Museo Galileo, Florence
An illustration of the Moon from Sidereus Nuncius, published in Venice, 1610
It was on this page that Galileo first noted an observation of the moons of Jupiter. This observation upset the notion that all celestial bodies must revolve around the Earth. Galileo published a full description in Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610
The phases of Venus, observed by Galileo in 1610
Galileo Galilei, portrait by Domenico Tintoretto
Cristiano Banti's 1857 painting Galileo facing the Roman Inquisition
Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Justus Sustermans, 1636. Uffizi Museum, Florence.
Portrait, originally attributed to Murillo, of Galileo gazing at the words "E pur si muove" (And yet it moves) (not legible in this image) scratched on the wall of his prison cell. The attribution and narrative surrounding the painting have since been contested.
Tomb of Galileo, Santa Croce, Florence
Middle finger of Galileo's right hand
A replica of the earliest surviving telescope attributed to Galileo Galilei, on display at the Griffith Observatory
Galileo's geometrical and military compass, thought to have been made c. 1604 by his personal instrument-maker Marc'Antonio Mazzoleni
The earliest known pendulum clock design. Conceived by Galileo Galilei
Galileo e Viviani, 1892, Tito Lessi
Dome of the Cathedral of Pisa with the "lamp of Galileo"
Galileo showing the Doge of Venice how to use the telescope (fresco by Giuseppe Bertini)
Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence
Statue of Galileo by Pio Fedi (1815–1892) inside the Lanyon Building of the Queen's University of Belfast. Sir William Whitla (Professor of Materia Medica 1890–1919) brought the statue back from Italy and donated it to the university.

Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from the city of Pisa, then part of the Duchy of Florence.

- Galileo Galilei
1636 portrait by Justus Sustermans

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"Simple gravity pendulum" model assumes no friction or air resistance.

Pendulum

Weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.

Weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.

"Simple gravity pendulum" model assumes no friction or air resistance.
Replica of Zhang Heng's seismometer. The pendulum is contained inside.
The Foucault pendulum in 1851 was the first demonstration of the Earth's rotation that did not involve celestial observations, and it created a "pendulum mania". In this animation the rate of precession is greatly exaggerated.
Mercury pendulum in Howard astronomical regulator clock, 1887
A Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clock, the most accurate pendulum clock ever made, at the NIST museum, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. It kept time with two synchronized pendulums. The master pendulum in the vacuum tank (left) swung free of virtually any disturbance, and controlled the slave pendulum in the clock case (right) which performed the impulsing and timekeeping tasks. Its accuracy was about a second per year.
The seconds pendulum, a pendulum with a period of two seconds so each swing takes one second
Borda & Cassini's 1792 measurement of the length of the seconds pendulum
A Kater's pendulum
Measuring gravity with an invariable pendulum, Madras, India, 1821
Repsold pendulum, 1864
Pendulums used in Mendenhall gravimeter, 1890
Quartz pendulums used in Gulf gravimeter, 1929
Two pendulums with the same period coupled by suspending them from a common support string. The oscillation alternates between the two.
Repetition of Huygens experiment showing synchronization of two clocks
Pendulum in the Metropolitan Cathedral, Mexico City.

From the first scientific investigations of the pendulum around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping and was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s.

Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory

Observational astronomy

Division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.

Division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.

Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory
An assembly in Estonia to observe meteors
The Crab Nebula as seen in various wavelengths
Ultra HD photography taken at La Silla Observatory.
ALMA is the world's most powerful telescope for studying the Universe at submillimeter and millimeter wavelengths.
Fully-steerable radio telescope in Green Bank, West Virginia.
Skalnaté pleso observatory, Slovakia.
One of the Oldest Observatories in South America is the Quito Astronomical Observatory, founded in 1873 and located 12 minutes south of the Equator in Quito, Ecuador. The Quito Astronomical Observatory is the National Observatory of Ecuador and is located in the Historic Center of Quito and is managed by the National Polytechnic School.
An amateur astrophotography setup with an automated guide system connected to a laptop.
50 cm refracting telescope at Nice Observatory.
The main platform at La Silla hosts a huge range of telescopes with which astronomers can explore the Universe.

Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw.

Speed can be thought of as the rate at which an object covers distance. A fast-moving object has a high speed and covers a relatively large distance in a given amount of time, while a slow-moving object covers a relatively small amount of distance in the same amount of time.

Speed

Object is the magnitude of the rate of change of its position with time or the magnitude of the change of its position per unit of time; it is thus a scalar quantity.

Object is the magnitude of the rate of change of its position with time or the magnitude of the change of its position per unit of time; it is thus a scalar quantity.

Speed can be thought of as the rate at which an object covers distance. A fast-moving object has a high speed and covers a relatively large distance in a given amount of time, while a slow-moving object covers a relatively small amount of distance in the same amount of time.

Italian physicist Galileo Galilei is usually credited with being the first to measure speed by considering the distance covered and the time it takes.

Albert Einstein, a key theoretical physicist in the 20th century who developed the theory of relativity and parts of early quantum theory.

Physicist

Scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

Scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

Albert Einstein, a key theoretical physicist in the 20th century who developed the theory of relativity and parts of early quantum theory.
In an 18th-century experiment in "natural philosophy" (later to be called "physics") English scientist Francis Hauksbee works with an early electrostatic generator.
Experimental physicists at work at the accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä (Finland).

The modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus leading to the physics of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s.

Montage of Jupiter's four Galilean moons, in a composite image depicting part of Jupiter and their relative sizes (positions are illustrative, not actual). From top to bottom: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.

Galilean moons

The Galilean moons, or Galilean satellites, are the four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

The Galilean moons, or Galilean satellites, are the four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

Montage of Jupiter's four Galilean moons, in a composite image depicting part of Jupiter and their relative sizes (positions are illustrative, not actual). From top to bottom: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
Two Hubble Space Telescope views of a rare triple transit of Jupiter by Europa, Callisto and Io (24 January 2015)
Galileo Galilei, the discoverer of the four moons
The Medician stars in the Sidereus Nuncius (the 'starry messenger'), 1610. The moons are drawn in changing positions.
A Jovilabe: an apparatus from the mid-18th century for demonstrating the orbits of Jupiter's satellites
Tupan Patera on Io.
Europa.
Recurring plume erupting from Europa.
Ganymede.
Callisto's Valhalla impact crater as seen by Voyager.
Comparison of (a part of) Jupiter and its four largest natural satellites
Surface features of the four members at different levels of zoom in each row
Galilean moons compared with moons of other planets (and with Earth; the scale is changed to 1 pixel = 94 km at this resolution).
The relative masses of the Jovian moons. Those smaller than Europa are not visible at this scale, and combined would only be visible at 100× magnification.
Jupiter and all of the Galilean moons as seen through an 25 cm amateur telescope (Meade LX200).
Jupiter with the Galilean moons – Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto (near maximum elongation), respectively – and the full Moon as seen around conjunction on 10 April 2017

They were first seen by Galileo Galilei in December 1609 or January 1610, and recognized by him as satellites of Jupiter in March 1610.

The 100-inch (2.54 m) Hooker reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles, USA, used by Edwin Hubble to measure galaxy redshifts and discover the general expansion of the universe.

Telescope

Optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation.

Optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation.

The 100-inch (2.54 m) Hooker reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles, USA, used by Edwin Hubble to measure galaxy redshifts and discover the general expansion of the universe.
17th century telescope
The 60-inch Hale (debuted in 1908) considered to be the first modern large research reflecting telescope.
The primary mirror assembly of James Webb Space Telescope under construction. This is a segmented mirror and its coated with Gold to reflect (orange-red) visible light, through near-infrared to the mid-infrared
Modern telescopes typically use CCDs instead of film for recording images. This is the sensor array in the Kepler spacecraft.
A 1.2-meter (47 in) reflecting telescope
Binoculars
The Very Large Array at Socorro, New Mexico, United States.
Einstein Observatory was a space-based focusing optical X-ray telescope from 1978.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is released into orbit by the Space Shutte in 1991, and it would operate until the year 2000
The reflectors of HEGRA detect flashes of light in the atmosphere, thus detecting high energy particles
Equatorial-mounted Keplerian telescope
A diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum with the Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) and the types of telescopes used to image parts of the spectrum.
Six views of the Crab nebula supernova remnant, viewed at different wavelengths of light by various telescopes
The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope in Guizhou, China, is the world's largest filled-aperture radio telescope

The word telescope was coined in 1611 by the Greek mathematician Giovanni Demisiani for one of Galileo Galilei's instruments presented at a banquet at the Accademia dei Lincei.

Full disk view in natural colour, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014

Jupiter

Fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

Fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

Full disk view in natural colour, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in April 2014
♃
Jupiter's diameter is one order of magnitude smaller (×0.10045) than that of the Sun, and one order of magnitude larger (×10.9733) than that of Earth. The Great Red Spot is roughly the same size as Earth.
Diagram of Jupiter, its interior, surface features, rings, and inner moons.
Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager 1, showing the motion of atmospheric bands and circulation of the Great Red Spot. Recorded over 32 days with one photograph taken every 10 hours (once per Jovian day). See [[:File:Jupiter from Voyager 1 PIA02855 max quality.ogv|full size video]].
Close up of the Great Red Spot imaged by the Juno spacecraft in April 2018
The Great Red Spot is decreasing in size (May 15, 2014)
Jupiter (red) completes one orbit of the Sun (centre) for every 11.86 orbits by Earth (blue)
A rotation time-lapse of Jupiter over 3 hours
Model in the Almagest of the longitudinal motion of Jupiter (☉) relative to Earth (🜨)
Galileo Galilei, discoverer of the four largest moons of Jupiter, now known as Galilean moons
Infrared image of Jupiter taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope
Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini
A photograph of Jupiter taken by the Juno spacecraft, at the end of a close flyby
(September 2018)
Jupiter, as seen by the Juno spacecraft
(February 12, 2019)
The rings of Jupiter
Diagram showing the Trojan asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt
Hubble image taken on July 23, 2009, showing a blemish about 5000 miles long left by the 2009 Jupiter impact event.
Jupiter, woodcut from a 1550 edition of Guido Bonatti's Liber Astronomiae
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Infrared view of Jupiter, imaged by the Gemini North telescope in Hawaiʻi on January 11, 2017
Jupiter imaged in visible light by the Hubble Space Telescope on January 11, 2017
Ultraviolet view of Jupiter, imaged by Hubble on January 11, 2017<ref>{{cite web|title=By Jove! Jupiter Shows Its Stripes and Colors|publisher=National Science Foundation|website=NOIRLab|date=May 11, 2021|url=https://noirlab.edu/public/news/noirlab2116/|access-date=June 17, 2021}}</ref>
This image of Jupiter and Europa, taken by Hubble on 25 August 2020, was captured when the planet was 653 million kilometres from Earth.<ref>{{cite web|title=Hubble Finds Evidence of Persistent Water Vapour Atmosphere on Europa|website=ESA Hubble|publisher=European Space Agency|date=October 14, 2021|url=https://esahubble.org/news/heic2111/|access-date=October 26, 2021}}</ref>

Jupiter has 80 known moons and possibly many more, including the four large moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

Parabolic water motion trajectory

Projectile motion

Form of motion experienced by an object or particle that is projected near Earth's surface and moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only (in particular, the effects of air resistance are passive and assumed to be negligible).

Form of motion experienced by an object or particle that is projected near Earth's surface and moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only (in particular, the effects of air resistance are passive and assumed to be negligible).

Parabolic water motion trajectory
Components of initial velocity of parabolic throwing
Trajectories of a projectile with air drag and varying initial velocities
The horizontal and vertical components of a projectile's velocity are independent of each other.
Displacement and coordinates of parabolic throwing
Maximum height of projectile
The maximum distance of projectile
Vacuum trajectory of a projectile for different launch angles. Launch speed is the same for all angles, 50 m/s if "g" is 10 m/s2.
Trajectories of a skydiver in air with Newton drag
Lofted trajectories of North Korean missiles Hwasong-14 and Hwasong-15
Projectile trajectory around a planet, compared to the motion in a uniform field

This curved path was shown by Galileo to be a parabola, but may also be a straight line in the special case when it is thrown directly upwards.

Federico Cesi

Accademia dei Lincei

One of the oldest and most prestigious European scientific institutions, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

One of the oldest and most prestigious European scientific institutions, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

Federico Cesi

Galileo Galilei was the intellectual centre of the academy and adopted "Galileo Galilei Linceo" as his signature.

Santa Croce, Florence

Principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church.

Principal Franciscan church in Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church.

The original brick west front (before the 1860s Gothic Revival embellishments by Niccolò Matas)
The altar and crucifix
A gate in the gardens with the letters "OPA" for ora pro animis ("pray for souls")
Giotto's Death of St. Francis (early 1320s) with overpainting removed
Michelangelo's tomb
Machiavelli's tomb
Galileo's tomb

It is the burial place of some of the most illustrious Italians, such as Michelangelo, Galileo, Machiavelli, the poet Foscolo, the philosopher Gentile and the composer Rossini, thus it is known also as the Temple of the Italian Glories (Tempio dell'Itale Glorie).