Galileo Galilei

GalileoGalileanGalileiGalilei, GalileoG. GalileiGalilei GalileoGalileo's methodGalileo's TelescopeGalileosGalilée
Galileo Galilei (, also, ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from Pisa.wikipedia
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Observational astronomy

astronomical observationobservationsobservational
Galileo has been called the "father of observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of the scientific method", and the "father of modern science".
Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
Galileo has been called the "father of observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of the scientific method", and the "father of modern science".
But the modicum of success of our guesses far exceeds that of sheer luck and seems born of attunement to nature by instincts developed or inherent, especially insofar as best guesses are optimally plausible and simple in the sense, said Peirce, of the "facile and natural", as by Galileo's natural light of reason and as distinct from "logical simplicity".

Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems

DialogoDialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondoDialogue
Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point.
The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) is a 1632 Italian-language book by Galileo Galilei comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system.

Jupiter

JovianGioveplanet Jupiter
His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the observation of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, the observation of Saturn's rings, and the analysis of sunspots.
Jupiter has 79 known moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610.

Projectile motion

ballistic trajectorylofted trajectoryballistic
Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects.
This curved path was shown by Galileo to be a parabola.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Galileo Galilei (, also, ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from Pisa.
And so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries later, during the Scientific Revolution.

Galileo affair

trial of GalileoGalileomedia
In 1614, during the Galileo affair, one of Galileo's opponents, the Dominican priest Tommaso Caccini, delivered against Galileo a controversial and influential sermon.
The Galileo affair (il processo a Galileo Galilei) was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentrism.

Phases of Venus

crescent phase of the planet Venusphasesphase of Venus
His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the observation of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, the observation of Saturn's rings, and the analysis of sunspots.
The first recorded observations of them were telescopic observations by Galileo Galilei in 1610.

Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
Galileo Galilei (, also, ; 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from Pisa.
His work was defended by Galileo Galilei and expanded upon by Johannes Kepler.

Maria Celeste

Virginia GambaCeleste GalileiS. Maria Celeste
Virginia took the name Maria Celeste upon entering the convent.
She was the daughter of the scientist Galileo Galilei and Marina Gamba.

Speed

tangential velocityaverage speedtangential speed
Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects.
Italian physicist Galileo Galilei is usually credited with being the first to measure speed by considering the distance covered and the time it takes.

Vincenzo Galilei

GALILEI, VINCENZIOnamesake grandfatherVincenzo
Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Duchy of Florence), Italy, on 15 February 1564, the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and Giulia (née Ammannati), who had married in 1562.
Vincenzo Galilei (3 April 1520, c. 1520, or late 1520s – buried 1 or 2 July 1591) was an Italian lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and the father of astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei and the lute virtuoso and composer Michelagnolo Galilei.

Pendulum

pendulumssimple pendulumpendula
Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects.
From the first scientific investigations of the pendulum around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was the world's most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s.

Gravity

gravitationgravitationalgravitational force
Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects.
Modern work on gravitational theory began with the work of Galileo Galilei in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

Arcetri

Both girls were accepted by the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives.
A number of historic buildings are situated there, including the house of the famous scientist Galileo Galilei (called Villa Il Gioiello),

Thermoscope

indication of whether the temperature was rising or falling
Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects. He created a thermoscope, a forerunner of the thermometer, and, in 1586, published a small book on the design of a hydrostatic balance he had invented (which first brought him to the attention of the scholarly world).
It is thought, but not certain that Galileo Galilei discovered the specific principle on which the device is based and built the first thermoscope in 1593.

Thermometer

thermometerstemperature sensortemperature
He created a thermoscope, a forerunner of the thermometer, and, in 1586, published a small book on the design of a hydrostatic balance he had invented (which first brought him to the attention of the scholarly world).
These devices were developed by several European scientists in the 16th and 17th centuries, notably Galileo Galilei and Santorio Santorio.

Principle of relativity

general principle of relativityrelativityrelativistic
Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects.
The special principle of relativity was first explicitly enunciated by Galileo Galilei in 1632 in his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, using the metaphor of Galileo's ship.

Marina Gamba

Despite being a genuinely pious Roman Catholic, Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba.
1570 – ) was the mother of Galileo Galilei's illegitimate children.

History of science

historian of sciencemodern sciencehistory
Galileo has been called the "father of observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of the scientific method", and the "father of modern science".
The works of John Philoponus inspired Galileo Galilei ten centuries later.

Copernican heliocentrism

Copernican systemCopernican theoryCopernican model
Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to geocentric models such as the Tychonic system.
Gilles Ménage, shortly after the trials of Galileo and Giordano Bruno, amended an accusative (identifying the object of the verb) with a nominative (the subject of the sentence), and vice versa, so that the impiety accusation fell over the heliocentric sustainer.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensChristian HuygensChristiaan Huyghens
It was not until the work of Christiaan Huygens, almost one hundred years later, that the tautochrone nature of a swinging pendulum was used to create an accurate timepiece.
His friends included Galileo Galilei, Marin Mersenne and René Descartes.

Mechanics

mechanicaltheoretical mechanicsmechanician
In 1592, he moved to the University of Padua where he taught geometry, mechanics, and astronomy until 1610.
During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and Newton laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics.

Discourse on Comets

Grassi's arguments and conclusions were criticised in a subsequent article, Discourse on Comets, published under the name of one of Galileo's disciples, a Florentine lawyer named Mario Guiducci, although it had been largely written by Galileo himself.
The Discourse on Comets (Discorso delle Comete) was a pamphlet published in 1619 with Mario Guiducci as the named author, though in reality it was mostly the work of Galileo Galilei.

Vincenzo Gamba

VincenzoGalileo's sonVincenzio
They had two daughters, Virginia (born in 1600) and Livia (born in 1601), and a son, Vincenzo (born in 1606).
Vincenzo or Vincenzio Gamba (1606–1649), later Vincenzo Galilei (1619), was the illegitimate son of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) and his mistress Marina Gamba (1570–1612).