Gallia Narbonensis

Transalpine GaulGallia TransalpinaTransalpineNarbonensisNarbonnesouthern GaulGaulMediterranean GaulNarbonese GaulProvincia Nostra
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.wikipedia
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Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
Around 125 BC, the south of Gaul was conquered by the Romans, who called this region Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), which over time evolved into the name Provence in French.

Septimania

GothiaMarch of GothiaGothic March
The western region of Gallia Narbonensis was known as Septimania.
It referred to the western part of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed to the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.

Provence

ProvençalProvençalsProvencal
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
The Roman province, which was called Gallia Narbonensis, for its capital, Narbo (modern Narbonne), extended from Italy to Spain, from the Alps to the Pyrenees.

Cisalpine Gaul

CisalpineGallia CisalpinaGallia Transpadana
It was also known as Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), from its having been the first Roman province north of the Alps, and as Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul"), distinguishing it from Cisalpine Gaul in northern Italy.
Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul, precisely that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps" (from the perspective of the Romans), as opposed to Transalpine Gaul ("on the far side of the Alps").

Roman province

provinceprovincesprovincial
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
120 BC – Gallia Narbonensis (southern France); prior to its annexation it was called Gallia Transalpina (Gallia on the other side of the Alps) to distinguish it from Gallia Cisalpina (Gaul on this same side of the Alps, in northern Italy). It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia (Marseille).

Colonia (Roman)

coloniacolonyRoman colony
The province of Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul") was later renamed Gallia Narbonensis, after its newly established capital of Colonia Narbo Martius (colloquially known as Narbo, at the location of the modern Narbonne), a Roman colony founded on the coast in 118 BC. The Romans had called it Provincia Nostra ("our province") or simply Provincia ("the province").

Via Domitia

Domitian WayHeraclean Lanevia Domitiana
In this strip of land, the Romans founded the town of Narbonne in 118 BC. At the same time, they built the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, connecting Gaul to Hispania, and the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa (Toulouse) and Burdigala (Bordeaux).
The Via Domitia was the first Roman road built in Gaul, to link Italy and Hispania through Gallia Narbonensis, across what is now southern France.

Gauls

GallicGaulishGaul
Rome entered into an alliance with Massalia, by which it agreed to protect the town from local Gauls, nearby Aquitani, sea-borne Carthaginians and other rivals, in exchange for a small strip of land that it wanted in order to build a road to Hispania, to assist in troop transport. During this period, the Mediterranean settlements on the coast were threatened by the powerful Gallic tribes to the north, especially the tribes known as the Arverni and the Allobroges.
The Romans intervened in southern Gaul in 125 BC, and conquered the area eventually known as Gallia Narbonensis by 121.

Gaul

GallicGalliaGaulish
Control of the province, which bordered directly on Italia, gave the Roman state several advantages: control of the land route between Italy and the Iberian peninsula; a territorial buffer against Gallic attacks on Italy; and control of the lucrative trade routes of the RhĂ´ne valley between Gaul and the markets of Massalia.
Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC.During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar finally subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC.

Gallic Wars

conquest of GaulGallic WarGaul
It was from the capital of Narbonne that Julius Caesar began his Gallic Wars.
When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, this province was also awarded to Caesar.

Allobroges

AllobrogianAllobrogian originAllobroge
During this period, the Mediterranean settlements on the coast were threatened by the powerful Gallic tribes to the north, especially the tribes known as the Arverni and the Allobroges.
Caesar says that the Segusiavi were the "first tribe outside the province" (Gallia Transalpina) on "the far side of the RhĂ´ne" and that he marched from the Allobroges to the Segusiavi; that is, the former occupied the east bank of the RhĂ´ne.

Gallia Aquitania

AquitaniaAquitaine4th-century Bordeaux
AD 314 merged the provinces Gallia Narbonensis and Gallia Aquitania into a new administrative unit called Dioecesis Viennensis (Diocese of Vienne) with the capital more to the north in Vienne.
It was bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis.

Mark Antony

Marcus AntoniusAntonyMark Anthony
In 40 BC, during the Second Triumvirate, Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul (along with Hispania and Africa), while Mark Antony was given the balance of Gaul.
In return, Caesar was assigned the governorship of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul, and Transalpine Gaul for five years beginning in 58 BC. Caesar used his governorship as a launching point for his conquest of free Gaul.

Bituitus

In 123 BC, the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus (later additionally named Allobrogicus) campaigned in the area and defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni under King Bituitus.
The defeat of the Arverni resulted in the establishment of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis.

Arverni

ArvernesArvernianGaul
During this period, the Mediterranean settlements on the coast were threatened by the powerful Gallic tribes to the north, especially the tribes known as the Arverni and the Allobroges.
The defeat of the Arverni led directly to the establishment of Gallia Narbonensis as a Roman province, referred to simply as the Provincia so often that a part of the ancient region is today known as Provence.

Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus

Quintus Fabius MaximusFabius MaximusQ. Fabius Maximus
In 123 BC, the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus (later additionally named Allobrogicus) campaigned in the area and defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni under King Bituitus.
During his consulship, he campaigned in Gallia Transalpina (in the modern day Auvergne and RhĂ´ne-Alpes regions) with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus against the Gallic tribes of the Allobroges and Arverni.

Second Triumvirate

triumvirstriumvirRoman Triumvir
In 40 BC, during the Second Triumvirate, Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul (along with Hispania and Africa), while Mark Antony was given the balance of Gaul.
In 44 BC, Lepidus' possession of the provinces of Hispania and Narbonese Gaul was confirmed, and he agreed to hand over 7 legions to Octavian and Antony to continue the struggle against Brutus and Cassius for eastern Roman territory; in the event of defeat, Lepidus' territories would provide a fall-back position.

Julius Caesar

CaesarGaius Julius CaesarJulius
It was from the capital of Narbonne that Julius Caesar began his Gallic Wars.
With the help of political allies, Caesar later overturned this, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) and Illyricum (southeastern Europe), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions.

Septem Provinciae

ViennensisSeven ProvincesDiocese of the Seven Provinces
The new diocese's name was later changed to Dioecesis Septem Provinciarum (Diocese of the Seven Provinces), indicating that Diocletian had demoted the word "province" to mean a smaller subdivision than in traditional usage.
It encompassed southern and western Gaul (Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis), that is, modern France south and west of the Loire, including Provence.

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)

Marcus Aemilius LepidusLepidusMarcus Lepidus
In 40 BC, during the Second Triumvirate, Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul (along with Hispania and Africa), while Mark Antony was given the balance of Gaul.
Lepidus thereafter administered both Hispania and Narbonese Gaul.

Titus Vinius

RufinusT. Vinius (Rufinus?)
Titus Vinius—under Nero
Nevertheless, Tacitus, who elsewhere describes him as "the most worthless of mankind", says that as proconsul of Gallia Narbonensis he administered the province with strict integrity.

Lucius Fabius Cilo

Lucius Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus FulcinianusL. Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus FulcinianusLucius Fabius Cilo Septimianus
Lucius Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus—between 180 and 192
Around 185, he became Proconsul of the Roman Province of Gallia Narbonensis and afterwards legate of III Gallica, about 189 to 192.

Visigoths

VisigothicVisigothGothic
Galla Narbonensis and surrounding areas were incorporated into the Visigothic Kingdom between AD 462 and 477, permanently ending Roman political control.
By 500, the Visigothic Kingdom, centred at Toulouse, controlled Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis and most of Hispania with the exception of the Kingdom of the Suebi in the northwest and small areas controlled by the Basques and Cantabrians.

Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus

C. Julius Cornutus TertullusCornutusCornutus Tertullus
Gaius Iulius Cornutus Tertullus—before 78
With praetorian rank, Cornutus held two more offices, first as legate to the proconsular governor of Crete and Cyrenaica, then as governor of the public province of Gallia Narbonensis.

Narbonne

NarboNarbo MartiusNarbona
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. The province of Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul") was later renamed Gallia Narbonensis, after its newly established capital of Colonia Narbo Martius (colloquially known as Narbo, at the location of the modern Narbonne), a Roman colony founded on the coast in 118 BC. The Romans had called it Provincia Nostra ("our province") or simply Provincia ("the province").
Later, the province of Transalpine Gaul was renamed Gallia Narbonensis after the city, which became its capital.