Gallo-Italic languages

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones.

The Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.

- Gallo-Italic languages

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Lombard language

Gallo-Romance language, consisting in a linguistic continuum spoken by millions of speakers in Northern Italy and Southern Switzerland, including most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions, notably the eastern side of Piedmont and the western side of Trentino, and in Switzerland in the cantons of Ticino and Graubünden.

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria
Lombard in Italy and Switzerland
The LSI, published in 2004

Lombard belongs to the Gallo-Italic (Cisalpine) group of Gallo-Romance languages, which belongs to the Western Romance subdivision.

Romance languages

The Romance languages, less commonly referred to as Latin languages or Neo-Latin languages, are the various modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the 3rd and 8th centuries.

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones. FP: Franco-Provençal, IR: Istro-Romanian.
Romance languages and dialects
European extent of Romance languages in the 20th century
Number of native speakers of each Romance language, as fractions of the total 690 million (2007)
Romance languages in the World
Length of the Roman rule and the Romance Languages
Romance languages in Europe
Romance languages in the World

Gallo-Italic: Piedmontese, Ligurian, Lombard, Emilian, Romagnol;

Emilian-Romagnol language

Gallo-Romance language spoken in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna.

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria.

As a Gallo-Italic language, Emilian-Romagnol is most closely related to the Lombard, Piedmontese and Ligurian languages, all of which are spoken in neighboring regions.

Franco-Provençal

Language within Gallo-Romance originally spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland and northwestern Italy.

Graziadio Isaia Ascoli
Title page of a Franco-Provençal dictionary from Saint-Étienne, France (1896): "The Key to the Gaga Dialect".
Language area map with standard place names and modern political divisions.
Conference hall at the 37th Fête internationale de l'arpitan, Saint-Etienne (France), 2016.
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Bilingual road sign (French-Valdôtain) in Introd, Aosta Valley.
Road sign for Charvex (La Balme de Thuy), Haute-Savoie, France after a name change in the 1990s to a historical Savoyard spelling. (Former village name: Charvet.)
Text of a carol about the appearance of a comet in 1682 by Jean Chapelon.
Cé qu'è l'ainô musical score showing verses 1, 2, 4, & 68.
Amélie Gex
Jean-Baptiste Cerlogne originating from Saint-Nicolas, Aosta Valley

Franco-Provençal is a separate Gallo-Romance language that transitions into the Oïl languages Morvandiau and Franc-Comtois to the northwest, into Romansh to the east, into the Gallo-Italic Piemontese to the southeast, and finally into the Vivaro-Alpine dialect of Occitan to the southwest.

Piedmontese language

Language spoken by some 2,000,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy.

It is linguistically included in the Gallo-Italic languages group of Northern Italy (with Lombard, Emilian, Ligurian and Romagnolo), which would make it part of the wider western group of Romance languages, which also includes French, Occitan, and Catalan.

Ligurian language

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria

Ligurian or Genoese (locally called zeneise or zeneize) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken primarily in the territories of the former Republic of Genoa, now comprising the area of Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco (where it is called Monegasque), the village of Bonifacio in Corsica, and in the villages of Carloforte on San Pietro Island and Calasetta on Sant'Antioco Island off the coast of southwestern Sardinia.

Gallo-Romance languages

The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes in the narrowest sense the Langues d'oïl and Franco-Provençal.

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones. FP: Franco-Provençal, IR: Istro-Romanian.

However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Occitano-Romance, Gallo-Italic, and Rhaeto-Romance languages.

Emilian dialects

Emilian (, emiliân; emiliano) are a group of closely-related dialects referred spoken in the historical region of Emilia, the western portion of today's Emilia-Romagna region, in Northern Italy.

Emilian used to be classified as one of the two branches of the Emilian-Romagnol language, but today this is an obsolete term that is been replaced by an Emilian language and a Romagnol language which represent Gallo-Italic languages.

Eastern Lombard dialect

Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria

Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related variants of Lombard, a Gallo-Italic dialect spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino.

Venetian language

Romance language spoken by Venetians in the northeast of Italy, mostly in Veneto, where most of the five million inhabitants can understand it.

A sign in Venetan reading "Here Venetan is also spoken"
Distribution of Romance languages in Europe. Venetian is number 15.
Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria.
A street sign (nizioléto) in Venice using Venetian calle, as opposed to the Italian via
Lasa pur dir (Let them speak), an inscription on the Venetian House in Piran, southwestern Slovenia
Venetian sign in ticket office, Santa Lucia di Piave

Some authors include it among the Gallo-Italic languages, and according to others, it is not related to either one.