Gamal Abdel Nasser

Nasser in 1931
Nasser's name circled in Al-Gihad
Portrait of Nasser at law school in 1937
Nasser (center) with Ahmed Mazhar (left) in army, 1940
Nasser (first from left) with his unit in the Faluja pocket, displaying weapons captured from the Israeli Army during the 1948 war.
The Free Officers after the coup, 1953. Counterclockwise: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein (standing), Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Mohamed Naguib, Youssef Seddik, and Ahmad Shawki.
Leaders of Egypt following the ouster of King Farouk, November 1952. Seated, left to right: Sulayman Hafez, Mohamed Naguib and Nasser
Nasser (right) and Mohamed Naguib (left) during celebrations marking the second anniversary of the 1952 revolution, July 1954
Nasser and Naguib saluting at the opening of the Suez Canal
Liberation organization in Alexandria invitation to Nasser speech 26 October 1954
Nasser greeted by crowds in Alexandria one day after his announcement of the British withdrawal and the assassination attempt against him, 27 October 1954.
Nasser and Imam Ahmad of North Yemen facing the camera, Prince Faisal of Saudi Arabia in white robes in the background, Amin al-Husayni of the All-Palestine Government in the foreground at the Bandung Conference, April 1955
Nasser submitting his vote for the referendum of the proposed constitution, 23 June 1956
Nasser raising the Egyptian flag over the Suez Canal city of Port Said to celebrate the final British military withdrawal from the country, June 1956
Nasser giving a speech at the opening of the Suez Canal
The signing of the regional defense pact between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Jordan, January 1957. At the forefront, from left right: Prime Minister Sulayman al-Nabulsi of Jordan, King Hussein of Jordan, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, Nasser, Prime Minister Sabri al-Asali of Syria
Nasser seated alongside Crown Prince Muhammad al-Badr of North Yemen (center) and Shukri al-Quwatli (right), February 1958. North Yemen joined the UAR to form the United Arab States, a loose confederation.
Nasser (right) and Lebanese president Fuad Chehab (to Nasser's right) at the Syrian–Lebanese border during talks to end the crisis in Lebanon. Akram al-Hawrani stands third to Nasser's left, and Abdel Hamid Sarraj stands to Chehab's right, March 1959.
Nasser waving to crowds in Damascus, Syria, October 1960
Nasser (center) receiving Algerian president Ahmed Ben Bella (right) and Iraqi president Abdel Salam Aref (left) for the Arab League summit in Alexandria, September 1964. Ben Bella and Aref were close allies of Nasser.
Nasser before Yemeni crowds on his arrival to Sana'a, April 1964. In front of Nasser and giving a salute is Yemeni President Abdullah al-Sallal
Government officials attending Friday prayers at al-Azhar Mosque, 1959. From left to right; Interior Minister Zakaria Mohieddin, Nasser, Social Affairs Minister Hussein el-Shafei and National Union Secretary Anwar Sadat
Nasser being sworn in for a second term as Egypt's president, 25 March 1965
Nasser (center), King Hussein of Jordan (left) and Egyptian Army Chief of Staff Abdel Hakim Amer (right) at the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces headquarters in Cairo before signing a mutual defense pact, 30 May 1967
Egyptian demonstrators protesting Nasser's resignation, 1967
Nasser observing the Suez front with Egyptian officers during the 1968 War of Attrition. General Commander Mohamed Fawzi is directly behind Nasser, and to their left is Chief of Staff Abdel Moneim Riad.
Nasser brokering a ceasefire between Yasser Arafat of the PLO (left) and King Hussein of Jordan (right) at the emergency Arab League summit in Cairo on 27 September 1970, one day before Nasser's death
Nasser's funeral procession attended by five million mourners in Cairo, 1 October 1970
Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque in Cairo, the site of his burial
Nasser presenting prominent and blind writer Taha Hussein (standing in front of Nasser) with a national honors prize for literature, 1959
Nasser speaking to a homeless Egyptian man and offering him a job, after the man was found sleeping below the stage where Nasser was seated, 1959
Nasser waving to crowds in Mansoura, 1960
Anwar Sadat (left) and Nasser in the National Assembly, 1964. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president in 1970 and significantly departed from Nasser's policies throughout his rule.
Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan (left), Nasser, and Muammar Gaddafi of Libya (right) at the Tripoli Airport, 1969. Nimeiry and Gaddafi were influenced by Nasser's pan-Arabist ideas and the latter sought to succeed him as "leader of the Arabs".
Nasser and his family in Manshiyat al-Bakri, 1963. From left to right, his daughter Mona, his wife Tahia Kazem, daughter Hoda, son Abdel Hakim, son Khaled, son Abdel Hamid, and Nasser.

Egyptian politician who served as the second president of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970.

- Gamal Abdel Nasser

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Suez Company (1858-1997)

Company formed by Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1858 to operate the concession of the Suez Canal, which the company built between 1859 and 1869.

Company formed by Ferdinand de Lesseps in 1858 to operate the concession of the Suez Canal, which the company built between 1859 and 1869.

Ferdinand de Lesseps in the 1870s, photographed by Nadar
1858 Suez Canal Company Equity Ownership
Ottoman Empire in 1862
Suez Company stamp, 1868
Suez Company security issued 1889/01/01
Suez Canal Company pavilion at the Exposition Universelle (1889)
Suez Company office built by Edmond Coignet in the early 1890s, now Suez Canal House in Port Said
Postcard of the Suez Canal Company office in Ismailia, early 20th century
Portal of the headquarters building in 2010, before the company's name was erased
Construction trains
right|Chalufa ridge work
Suez canal construction laborers
Dredge machine
Dredging operations
1869 inauguration, engraving
Illustration of the inauguration, by Édouard Riou in 1869

The Suez Company operated the canal until Egypt's new president Gamal Abdel Nasser revoked its concession in 1956 and transferred canal operation to the state-owned Suez Canal Authority, precipitating the Suez Crisis.

The Israeli–Egyptian war of Attrition was centered largely on the Suez Canal.

War of Attrition

The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف; מלחמת ההתשה) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) and their allies from 1967 to 1970.

The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف; מלחמת ההתשה) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) and their allies from 1967 to 1970.

The Israeli–Egyptian war of Attrition was centered largely on the Suez Canal.
An Egyptian Ilyushin Il-28 bomber attacks Israeli forces in the Sinai
Israeli naval personnel celebrate their victory after an engagement with Egyptian naval forces near Rumani.
Israeli destroyer INS Eilat that was sunk by the Egyptian Navy, killing forty-seven sailors
Israeli paratroopers in action during the Battle of Karameh in 1968
King Hussein after checking an abandoned Israeli tank in the aftermath of the Battle of Karameh
An Israeli military vehicle on patrol in the Jordan Valley, circa 1968
Israeli air raid against targets in Jordan after firing towards Israel from Jordan, circa 1969
Israeli artillery in action in 1969
President Nasser of Egypt (with binoculars) surveys positions at the Suez Canal in November 1968
F-4E Phantom of the Israeli Air Force. The aircraft was used to good effect as "flying artillery" during the war. Roundel markings on nose credit this aircraft with three aerial kills.
Israeli forces in the Suez Canal area
Israeli Shayetet 13 naval commandos during Operation Bulmus 6
Israeli troops at the Firdan Bridge by the Suez Canal, 1969
A BTR-50 armored personnel carrier being loaded onto an Israeli landing craft as part of Operation Raviv
Soviet/Egyptian S-125 anti-aircraft type missiles in the Suez Canal vicinity
Israeli paratroopers in action during Operation Rhodes
Soviet medal The medal says Москва-Каир (Moscow-Cairo).
Israeli war ribbon signifying participation in the War of Attrition

The Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser believed that only military initiative would compel Israel or the international community to facilitate a full Israeli withdrawal from Sinai, and hostilities soon resumed along the Suez Canal.

Map of the military movements and territories occupied during the Six-Day War. The territory of Israel is colored royal blue on this map, while the territories captured by Israel during the war are depicted in various shades of green.

Six-Day War

Armed conflict fought from 5 to 10 June 1967 between Israel and a coalition of Arab states primarily comprising Jordan, Syria and Egypt (then known as United Arab Republic).

Armed conflict fought from 5 to 10 June 1967 between Israel and a coalition of Arab states primarily comprising Jordan, Syria and Egypt (then known as United Arab Republic).

Map of the military movements and territories occupied during the Six-Day War. The territory of Israel is colored royal blue on this map, while the territories captured by Israel during the war are depicted in various shades of green.
On 22 May 1967, President Nasser addressed his pilots at Bir Gifgafa Airfield in Sinai: "The Jews are threatening war—we say to them ahlan wa-sahlan (welcome)!"
Israeli troops examine destroyed Egyptian aircraft
Dassault Mirage at the Israeli Air Force Museum. Operation Focus was mainly conducted using French built aircraft.
Conquest of Sinai. 5–6 June 1967
People in a bomb shelter at Kfar Maimon
Israeli reconnaissance forces from the "Shaked" unit in Sinai during the war
Major General Ariel Sharon during the Battle of Abu-Ageila
Israeli Armor of the Six-Day War: pictured here the AMX 13
Conquest of Sinai. 7–8 June 1967
An Israeli gunboat passes through the Straits of Tiran near Sharm El Sheikh.
The Jordan salient, 5–7 June.
Israeli paratroopers flush out Jordanian soldiers from trenches during the Battle of Ammunition Hill.
Silhouette of Israeli paratroops advancing on Ammunition Hill.
An Israeli airstrike near the Augusta-Victoria Hospital
David Rubinger's photograph of IDF paratroopers at Jerusalem's Western Wall shortly after its capture. The soldiers in the foreground are (from left) Zion Karasenti, Yitzhak Yifat, and Haim Oshri.
From left, General Uzi Narkiss, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, and Chief of Staff Lt. General Yitzhak Rabin in the Old City of Jerusalem after its fall to Israeli forces
The Battle of Golan Heights, 9–10 June.
People in a bomb shelter at Kibbutz Dan
Israeli tanks advancing on the Golan Heights. June 1967

In May, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser announced that the Straits of Tiran would again be closed to Israeli vessels, subsequently mobilized the Egyptian military along the border with Israel, and ordered the immediate withdrawal of all UNEF personnel.

The leaders of the Revolution, Mohammed Naguib (left) and Gamal Abdel Nasser (right) in a Cadillac

Egyptian revolution of 1952

The leaders of the Revolution, Mohammed Naguib (left) and Gamal Abdel Nasser (right) in a Cadillac
Members of the Free Officers gathered after the coup d'état. From left to right: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein, Gamal Abdel Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Muhammad Naguib, Youssef Seddik and Ahmed Shawki
Members of the Free Officers welcomed by crowds in Cairo in January 1953. Standing in the automobile, from left to right: Youssef Seddik, Salah Salem, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Abdel Latif Boghdadi

The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the 23 July Revolution, was a period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt that began on 23 July 1952 with the toppling of King Farouk in a coup d'etat by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Royalist Yemeni forces attempt to repel an Egyptian armored attack

North Yemen Civil War

Fought in North Yemen from 1962 to 1970 between partisans of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom and supporters of the Yemen Arab Republic.

Fought in North Yemen from 1962 to 1970 between partisans of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom and supporters of the Yemen Arab Republic.

Royalist Yemeni forces attempt to repel an Egyptian armored attack
Yemeni tribesmen who supported al-Badr
Yemeni tribesman being held as a hostage by al-Badr forces
Muhammad al-Badr praying with his guards.
Map of North Yemen
Author Dana Adams Schmidt with President Sallal, March 1967
Abdullah Sallal (center) and the heads of the coup in October, 1962
The Ramadan (straight) and Haradh (dotted) offensives
A republican helicopter, captured early in the war by the royalists outside Marib
A Soviet-manufactured armored car, captured by royalist guerrillas from the Egyptians near Haradh
The camp used by royalist forces at Hanjar, in north-eastern Yemen
Egyptian bomb damage in a village near Marib
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser (standing to the left) welcomed by Yemeni crowds on his visit to Sanaa, April 1964. In front of Nasser and giving a salute is Yemeni President al-Sallal.
The International Red Cross hospital at Uqd
Situation in North Yemen 1967 between Republicans (black) and Zaidi Royalists (red)
Prince Mohamed bin Hussein, deputy to Muhammad al-Badr, in command of the royalist forces besieging San'a, December 1967
Yemeni Prime Minister, Prince Hassan ibn Yahya, talking to tribesmen outside his cave in Wadi Amlah, December 1962
Prince Abdullah Hussein (below, center) with his men soon after the Egyptian air attack in Wadi Hirran, December 1962
British mercenaries in the mountains of North Yemen helping Royalist rebels set up a heavy machine gun above a hideout cave
Brigadier Kamal Hassan Ali, Egyptian chief of operations, at his desk in San'a
An Egyptian instructor at the San'a military academy showing a Yemeni how to use a bayonet affixed to a Mosin–Nagant rifle
King Faisal at Jeddah
Prince Abdurrahman Bin Yahya, youngest brother of the Imam Ahmad, with a veteran of the imamic army, at Uqd

Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser supported the republicans with as many as 70,000 Egyptian troops and weapons.

President of Egypt

Executive head of state of Egypt and the defacto appointer of the official head of government under the Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

Executive head of state of Egypt and the defacto appointer of the official head of government under the Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

Presidential Standard, 1972–1984

The first president of Egypt was Mohamed Naguib, who along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 that overthrew King Farouk and marked the end of the British colonial rule.

Aswan Dam

World's largest embankment dam, which was built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.

World's largest embankment dam, which was built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970.

Egyptian President Nasser and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev at the ceremony to divert the Nile during the construction of the Aswan High Dam on 14 May 1964. At this occasion Khrushchev called it "the eighth wonder of the world".
Gamal Abdel Nasser observing the construction of the dam, 1963
A view from the vantage point in the middle of High Dam towards the monument of Arab-Soviet Friendship (Lotus Flower) by architects Piotr Pavlov, Juri Omeltchenko and sculptor Nikolay Vechkanov
A central pylon of the monument to Arab-Soviet Friendship. The memorial commemorates the completion of the Aswan High Dam. The coat of arms of the Soviet Union is on the left and the coat of arms of Egypt is on the right.
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert
Water balances
Main irrigation systems (schematically)
The Egyptian countryside benefited from the Aswan High Dam through improved irrigation as well as electrification, as shown here in Al Bayadiyah, south of Luxor.
Power pylons at the power plant of the Aswan High Dam.
Power plant of the Aswan High Dam, with the dam itself in the background.
A picture of the old Wadi Halfa town that was flooded by Lake Nasser.
View of New Wadi Halfa, a settlement created on the shore of Lake Nasser to house part of the resettled population from the Old Wadi Halfa town.
The statue of Ramses the Great at the Great Temple of Abu Simbel is reassembled after having been moved in 1967 to save it from being flooded.
Lake Nasser behind the Aswan dam displaced more than 100,000 people and traps significant amounts of sediment.
Skin vesicles: a symptom of schistosomiasis. A more common symptom is blood in the urine.
The catch of sardines in the Mediterranean off the Egyptian coast declined after the Aswan Dam was completed, but the exact reasons for the decline are still disputed.

The Egyptian position changed completely after the overthrow of the monarchy, led by the Free Officers Movement including Gamal Abdel Nasser.

The Arab world

Pan-Arabism

Ideology that espouses the unification of the countries of North Africa and Western Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, which is referred to as the Arab world.

Ideology that espouses the unification of the countries of North Africa and Western Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, which is referred to as the Arab world.

The Arab world
Under Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, pan-Arabism dominated politics in the 1950s and 1960s
States and territories in the Arab League

It was not until Gamal Abdel Nasser that Arab nationalism (in addition to Arab socialism) became a state policy and a means with which to define Egypt's position in the Middle East and the world, usually articulated vis-à-vis Zionism in the neighbouring state of Israel.

Alexei Nikolaevich and his sister Tatiana Nikolaevna surrounded by guards during their house arrest in Tsarskoye Selo, April 1917

House arrest

Measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to their residence.

Measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to their residence.

Alexei Nikolaevich and his sister Tatiana Nikolaevna surrounded by guards during their house arrest in Tsarskoye Selo, April 1917
Grand Duchesses Maria, Olga, Anastasia and Tatiana Nikolaevna under house arrest in Tsarskoye Selo, May 1917

Muhammad Naguib, former President of Egypt. He led a military coup in 1953 and deposed the former King Farouk. He was deposed by Gamal Nasser in 1954 and placed under house arrest.

Helwan

City in Egypt and part of Greater Cairo, on the bank of the Nile, opposite the ruins of Memphis.

City in Egypt and part of Greater Cairo, on the bank of the Nile, opposite the ruins of Memphis.

President Gamal Abdel Nasser inaugurating the Al Nasr automobile factory in Helwan, 1963
Helwan points (Abu Salem points sub-type)
Map of the Levantine sites with Helwan points

In 1959 Helwan was chosen to serve as a site of a major industrial city, as part of President Gamal Abdel Nasser's attempts to industrialize Egypt.