Gamal Abdel Nasser

Nasser in 1931
Nasser's name circled in Al-Gihad
Portrait of Nasser at law school in 1937
Nasser (center) with Ahmed Mazhar (left) in army, 1940
Nasser (first from left) with his unit in the Faluja pocket, displaying weapons captured from the Israeli Army during the 1948 war.
The Free Officers after the coup, 1953. Counterclockwise: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein (standing), Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Mohamed Naguib, Youssef Seddik, and Ahmad Shawki.
Leaders of Egypt following the ouster of King Farouk, November 1952. Seated, left to right: Sulayman Hafez, Mohamed Naguib and Nasser
Nasser (right) and Mohamed Naguib (left) during celebrations marking the second anniversary of the 1952 revolution, July 1954
Nasser and Naguib saluting at the opening of the Suez Canal
Liberation organization in Alexandria invitation to Nasser speech 26 October 1954
Nasser greeted by crowds in Alexandria one day after his announcement of the British withdrawal and the assassination attempt against him, 27 October 1954.
Nasser and Imam Ahmad of North Yemen facing the camera, Prince Faisal of Saudi Arabia in white robes in the background, Amin al-Husayni of the All-Palestine Government in the foreground at the Bandung Conference, April 1955
Nasser submitting his vote for the referendum of the proposed constitution, 23 June 1956
Nasser raising the Egyptian flag over the Suez Canal city of Port Said to celebrate the final British military withdrawal from the country, June 1956
Nasser giving a speech at the opening of the Suez Canal
The signing of the regional defense pact between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Jordan, January 1957. At the forefront, from left right: Prime Minister Sulayman al-Nabulsi of Jordan, King Hussein of Jordan, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, Nasser, Prime Minister Sabri al-Asali of Syria
Nasser seated alongside Crown Prince Muhammad al-Badr of North Yemen (center) and Shukri al-Quwatli (right), February 1958. North Yemen joined the UAR to form the United Arab States, a loose confederation.
Nasser (right) and Lebanese president Fuad Chehab (to Nasser's right) at the Syrian–Lebanese border during talks to end the crisis in Lebanon. Akram al-Hawrani stands third to Nasser's left, and Abdel Hamid Sarraj stands to Chehab's right, March 1959.
Nasser waving to crowds in Damascus, Syria, October 1960
Nasser (center) receiving Algerian president Ahmed Ben Bella (right) and Iraqi president Abdel Salam Aref (left) for the Arab League summit in Alexandria, September 1964. Ben Bella and Aref were close allies of Nasser.
Nasser before Yemeni crowds on his arrival to Sana'a, April 1964. In front of Nasser and giving a salute is Yemeni President Abdullah al-Sallal
Government officials attending Friday prayers at al-Azhar Mosque, 1959. From left to right; Interior Minister Zakaria Mohieddin, Nasser, Social Affairs Minister Hussein el-Shafei and National Union Secretary Anwar Sadat
Nasser being sworn in for a second term as Egypt's president, 25 March 1965
Nasser (center), King Hussein of Jordan (left) and Egyptian Army Chief of Staff Abdel Hakim Amer (right) at the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces headquarters in Cairo before signing a mutual defense pact, 30 May 1967
Egyptian demonstrators protesting Nasser's resignation, 1967
Nasser observing the Suez front with Egyptian officers during the 1968 War of Attrition. General Commander Mohamed Fawzi is directly behind Nasser, and to their left is Chief of Staff Abdel Moneim Riad.
Nasser brokering a ceasefire between Yasser Arafat of the PLO (left) and King Hussein of Jordan (right) at the emergency Arab League summit in Cairo on 27 September 1970, one day before Nasser's death
Nasser's funeral procession attended by five million mourners in Cairo, 1 October 1970
Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque in Cairo, the site of his burial
Nasser presenting prominent and blind writer Taha Hussein (standing in front of Nasser) with a national honors prize for literature, 1959
Nasser speaking to a homeless Egyptian man and offering him a job, after the man was found sleeping below the stage where Nasser was seated, 1959
Nasser waving to crowds in Mansoura, 1960
Anwar Sadat (left) and Nasser in the National Assembly, 1964. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president in 1970 and significantly departed from Nasser's policies throughout his rule.
Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan (left), Nasser, and Muammar Gaddafi of Libya (right) at the Tripoli Airport, 1969. Nimeiry and Gaddafi were influenced by Nasser's pan-Arabist ideas and the latter sought to succeed him as "leader of the Arabs".
Nasser and his family in Manshiyat al-Bakri, 1963. From left to right, his daughter Mona, his wife Tahia Kazem, daughter Hoda, son Abdel Hakim, son Khaled, son Abdel Hamid, and Nasser.

Egyptian politician who served as the second president of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970.

- Gamal Abdel Nasser

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Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011

2011 Egyptian revolution

The 2011 Egyptian revolution, also known as the 25 January revolution (ثورة ٢٥ يناير; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), began on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.

The 2011 Egyptian revolution, also known as the 25 January revolution (ثورة ٢٥ يناير; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), began on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.

Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011
Hosni Mubarak in 2009
Gamal Mubarak in 2006
Egyptian population pyramid in 2005; many people age 30 and younger, despite education, have difficulty finding work.
A poor neighbourhood in Cairo
Protester holds Egyptian flag during protests which began on 25 January 2011.
The "Day of Revolt", 25 January
Protest in Tahrir Square, 4 February
Celebrating the announcement of Hosni Mubarak's resignation in Tahrir Square, 11 February
Protesters in Alexandria
Tahrir Square memorial made by demonstrators in honour of those who died during the protests, regarded as shuhada' شهداء (martyrs). The photo captions attribute most of the deaths to police violence.
Graffiti at Tahrir square, commemorating martyrs of the revolution
Sign with protester demands
Shredded documents at the State Security Investigations Service
Voter line in Mokattam, Cairo, during the 19 March 2011 constitutional referendum extending from the built-up area of Mokattam into the desert. The referendum had an unprecedented voter turnout of over 18 million.
Female protester wearing a niqāb
One of two army vehicles burnt during the army attacks on 9 April 2011
An Egyptian blocking a SWAT van in response to the protests
Man holding a poster reading "Facebook, #jan25, The Egyptian Social Network" during the 2011 protests
People take to the streets on 7 April 2008, in Mahalla, Egypt. In the days following the planned strike on 6 April that was shut down by government force, a series of uprisings and military reprisals turned the city of Mahalla, about two hours north of Cairo, into a conflict zone. Rising food prices fueled the unrest. The 6 April Movement was formed in the wake of the uprisings which fed revolutionary sentiment and helped lead to the 2011 revolution.

Egypt's economy was highly centralised during the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, becoming more market-driven under Anwar Sadat and Mubarak.

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC

Alexandria

Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Alexander the Great
The Lighthouse of Alexandria on coins minted in Alexandria in the second century (1: reverse of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and 2: reverse of a coin of Commodus).
Alexandria in the late 18th century, by Luigi Mayer
Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria, oil on canvas, 365 x,, Versailles
The Battle of Abukir, by Antoine-Jean Gros 1806
Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces
Map of the city in the 1780s, by Louis-François Cassas.
Macedonian Army, shown on the Alexander Sarcophagus.
Engraving by L. F. Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria, Egypt made in 1784.
Satellite image of Alexandria and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain
Lake Mariout
Egypt – Obelisk, Alexandria. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.
Roman Amphitheater
Roman Pompey's Pillar
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral
Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.
Citadel of Qaitbay
Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria
Collège Saint Marc
Lycée Français d'Alexandrie
Borg El Arab International Airport
Alexandria port
Misr Railway Station
An Alexandria tram
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Alexandria Stadium
The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square
Shalalat Gardens
Montaza Garden
Alexandria Art Centre
Alexandria Opera House
Fawzia Fahmy Palace
Alexander the Great's statue
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier
Montaza Palace
Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque

On 26 October 1954, Alexandria's Mansheya Square was the site of a failed assassination attempt on Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Emblem of the Egyptian Armed Forces

Egyptian Armed Forces

The Egyptian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

The Egyptian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Emblem of the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Mi-8 Hip helicopters after unloading troops
Egyptian Mirage 5 at Cairo-West 1985
An Egyptian F16C Pilot
Egyptian Military Police

In May 1967, President Nasser closed the Straits of Tiran to passage of Israeli ships.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.

Ulama

In Islam, the ulama (علماء ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and aalimath [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.

In Islam, the ulama (علماء ʿUlamāʾ, singular عالِم ʿĀlim, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah [singular] and aalimath [plural]) are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious knowledge in Islam, including Islamic doctrine and law.

Scholars at an Abbasid library. Maqamat of al-Hariri. Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti, Baghdad, 1237.
Ijazah (diploma of competency) in Arabic calligraphy, written by 'Ali Ra'if Efendi in 1206 AH (1791 AD)
Endowment Charter (Waqfiyya) of the Hürrem Sultan Mosque, Madrasa and Imaret (soup-kitchen). AD 1556-1557 (AH 964). Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts
Seyh-ül-Islâm, watercolour, ca. 1809
Iranian Shaykh ul-Islam Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi (1627–1699)

From 1961 onwards, Gamal Abdel Nasser tried to increase the state control over ancient Islamic institutions like al-Azhar university.

Islam by country
 Sunni
 Shia
 Ibadi

Pan-Islamism

Political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic country or state – often a caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.

Political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic country or state – often a caliphate – or an international organization with Islamic principles.

Islam by country
 Sunni
 Shia
 Ibadi

Egyptian president Nasser considered the idea of Muslim unity as a threat to Arab nationalism.

President of Egypt

Executive head of state of Egypt and the defacto appointer of the official head of government under the Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

Executive head of state of Egypt and the defacto appointer of the official head of government under the Egyptian Constitution of 2014.

Presidential Standard, 1972–1984

The first president of Egypt was Mohamed Naguib, who along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 that overthrew King Farouk and marked the end of the British colonial rule.

Shukri al-Quwatli

The first president of post-independence Syria.

The first president of post-independence Syria.

Quwatli and members of his family in Beirut 1966. From Left: Huda, Mahmud, Shukri al-Quwatli, Hassan, Bahira al-Dalati, Hala and Hana.
Quwatli (first from the bottom left) seated with members of the Syrian nationalist movement, 1920s. Seated next to Quwatli are Said al-Ghazzi, Riad al-Shurbaji, Sheikh Saleh al-Ali. Standing left to right are Hajj Adib Kheir and Ibrahim Hananu
Quwatli declaring Syria's independence from France, 17 April 1946
Syrian and Palestinian leaders meeting Quwatli at the presidential palace, 1955. From right to left: Sabri al-Asali, Fares al-Khoury, Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, Quwatli, Mohamed Ali Eltaher, Nazim al-Qudsi, Amin al-Husayni and Muin al-Madi
Quwatli (left) with President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt (right) and King Saud of Saudi Arabia (center) concluding a defense agreement between the three countries, 1956
Quwatli and Nasser at final meeting of Syrian-Egyptian unity talks in Cairo. Sabri al-Asali is behind Quwatli, Salah al-Din al-Bitar is the second to Nasser's left and Afif Bizri is to al-Bitar's left, February 1958
Quwatli clasps hands with Nasser before crowds of spectators in Damascus days after the United Arab Republic is established, March 1958
Quwatli's coffin being carried by mourners during his funeral procession at the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus
Quwatli's grave in Damascus

By then, his political authority had receded as the military bypassed Quwatli's jurisdiction by independently coordinating with Quwatli's erstwhile ally, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Tito in 1961

Josip Broz Tito

Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various positions from 1943 until his death in 1980.

Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various positions from 1943 until his death in 1980.

Tito in 1961
Tito's mug shot after arrest for communist activities in 1928
Tito (left) and his ideological mentor Moša Pijade while in the Lepoglava jail
Edvard Kardelj met Tito in 1934 and they became close friends
Yugoslav volunteers fighting in the Spanish Civil War
Fake Canadian ID, "Spiridon Mekas", used for returning to Yugoslavia from Moscow, 1939
Josip Broz Tito inspects 1st Proletarian Brigade. Next to him are: Ivan Ribar, Koča Popović, Filip Kljajić, Ivo Lola Ribar, Danilo Lekić and Mijalko Todorović.
Tito and Ivan Ribar at Sutjeska in 1943
Tito and the Partisan Supreme Command, May 1944
Josip Broz Tito and Winston Churchill in 1944 in Naples, Italy
Celebrating Tito in Zagreb in 1945, in presence of Orthodox dignitaries, the Catholic cardinal Aloysius Stepinac, and the Soviet military attaché
Josip Broz Tito greeting former U.S. first lady Eleanor Roosevelt during her July 1953 visit to Yugoslavia
Kardelj, Ranković and Tito in 1958
Josip Broz Tito visiting his birthplace Kumrovec in 1961
Tito with North Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh in Belgrade, 1957
Tito and Nikita Khrushchev in Skopje after the 1963 earthquake
Tito's diplomatic passport, 1973
Tito and Nasser in Aleppo in 1959
U.S.-Yugoslav summit, 1978
Tito's calling card from 1967
Tomb of Tito
Statue of Tito in his village of his birth, Kumrovec
Marshal Tito Street in Skopje (Yugoslav People's Army provide support after 26 July 1963 earthquake)
"Long live Tito", graffiti in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2009
Jovanka Broz and Tito in Postojna, 1960
Beli dvor in Belgrade, one of the Tito's residences
Brijuni islands, location of the summer residence
Lounge in the Blue Train
Tito and Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India, signing the Joint Declaration after the conclusion of their talks, c. 1955
Tito and Haile Selassie in Koper in 1959
Tito and Urho Kekkonen in Helsinki in 1964
Tito and Willy Brandt in Bonn in 1970
Richard Nixon with Tito at the White House, 1971
Queen Elizabeth II with Tito in Belgrade, 1972
Tito with Jimmy Carter in Washington in 1978

He gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.

Official portrait, 1963

Ahmed Ben Bella

Algerian politician, soldier and socialist revolutionary who served as the first president of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

Algerian politician, soldier and socialist revolutionary who served as the first president of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

Official portrait, 1963
Ben Bella (right) after his arrest by the French army.
Ben Bella with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, Cuba, 1962
Egypt´s president Nasser with Tunisia's Bourguiba and Ben Bella, 1963

When the Egyptian president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, invited Ben Bella to speak for the first time to an Egyptian audience, he broke into tears because he could not speak standard Arabic.

Eisenhower Doctrine

Policy enunciated by Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 5, 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East".

Policy enunciated by Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 5, 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East".

Coupled with the power vacuum left by the decline of British and French power in the region after the U.S. protested against the conduct of their allies during the Suez War, Eisenhower thought that the strong position needed to better the situation was further complicated by the positions taken by Egypt's Gamal Abdel Nasser, who was rapidly building a power base and using it to play the Soviets and Americans against each other, taking a position of "positive neutrality" and accepting aid from the Soviets.