Gamburtsev Mountain Range

The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.

Subglacial mountain range located in East Antarctica, just underneath the lofty Dome A, near the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility.

- Gamburtsev Mountain Range
The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.

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Map of Antarctica with Eastern Antarctica seen to the right.

East Antarctica

East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains.

East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains.

Map of Antarctica with Eastern Antarctica seen to the right.
Image of a variety of ice types off the coast of East Antarctica.
Geographical map of Antarctica

It is generally higher than West Antarctica and includes the Gamburtsev Mountain Range in the center.

The high, flat, and cold environment of the Antarctic Plateau at Dome C

Dome A

Loftiest ice dome on the Antarctic Plateau, located 1200 km inland.

Loftiest ice dome on the Antarctic Plateau, located 1200 km inland.

The high, flat, and cold environment of the Antarctic Plateau at Dome C

Below this enormous dome, underneath at least 2400 m of ice sheet, lies the Gamburtsev Mountain Range, about the size of the European Alps.

10 Years of Soviet Research in Antarctica, 1966 USSR stamp block

3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition

Led by Yevgeny Tolstikov on the continent and included Czech future astronomer Antonín Mrkos; the marine expedition on the Ob was led by I V Maksimov.

Led by Yevgeny Tolstikov on the continent and included Czech future astronomer Antonín Mrkos; the marine expedition on the Ob was led by I V Maksimov.

10 Years of Soviet Research in Antarctica, 1966 USSR stamp block

Gamburtsev Mountain Range

Grigory Gamburtsev

Soviet seismologist and academician from Saint Petersburg, Russia who worked in the area of seismometry and earthquake prediction.

Soviet seismologist and academician from Saint Petersburg, Russia who worked in the area of seismometry and earthquake prediction.

The Gamburtsev Mountain Range, a range of sub-glacial mountains near Dome A in Eastern Antarctica, was discovered in 1958 by the 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition and named after him in the same year; Val Gamburtsev, an oil deposit in Nenets Autonomous Okrug, (part of Arkhangelsk Oblast), is also named for him.

The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.

Vostok Subglacial Highlands

The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.

Vostok Subglacial Highlands (-80°N, 102°W) is a line of subglacial highlands trending NNW-SSE and forming an east extension of Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains.

The rock cycle shows the relationship between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Timeline of natural history

This timeline of natural history summarizes significant geological and biological events from the formation of the Earth to the arrival of modern humans.

This timeline of natural history summarizes significant geological and biological events from the formation of the Earth to the arrival of modern humans.

The rock cycle shows the relationship between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

c. 1,100 Ma – First dinoflagellate evolve; photosynthetic, some develop mixotrophic habits of ingesting prey. Thus, they become the first predators, forcing acritarchs to defensive strategies and leading to open "arms" race. Late Ruker (1.1–1 Gyr) and Nimrod Orogenies (1.1 Gyr) in Antarctica possibly begins: formation of Gamburtsev mountain range and Vostok Subglacial Highlands. Keweenawan Rift buckles in the south-central part of the North American plate – leaves behind thick layers of rock that are exposed in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska and creates rift valley where future Lake Superior develops.

The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.

Polar Subglacial Basin

The glacier of the Geikie Plateau in Greenland.

Polar Subglacial Basin (-85°N, 110°W) is a subglacial basin situated generally between Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and the Dominion Range in East Antarctica.

Sognefjord in Norway, the second longest fjord in the world, shows characteristic overdeepening.

Overdeepening

Characteristic of basins and valleys eroded by glaciers.

Characteristic of basins and valleys eroded by glaciers.

Sognefjord in Norway, the second longest fjord in the world, shows characteristic overdeepening.
Classic depth profile of an overdeepened fjord.
Geirangerfjord in Norway which descend to 600 m below sea level.
Coniston Water illustrates a typical fjord lake profile with length exceeding width by a factor of 10.
New York's Finger Lakes. Lying south of Lake Ontario the Finger Lakes formed in tunnel valleys.
Formation of cirque.
Overdeepened basins in the Gamburtsev Mountains of Antarctica.
The major zones associated with an overdeepened stretch of a glacier.
Ice lens growing within glacial till and within bedrock beneath glacial ice.

Glaciologists performed a detailed radar survey of Antarctica's Gamburtsev Mountains during the International Polar Year, allowing both the overlying glacial ice thickness and the elevation of the bedrock below to be found.

Robin Bell (scientist)

Palisades Geophysical Institute Lamont Research Professor at Columbia University's Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory and a past President of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019–2021.

Palisades Geophysical Institute Lamont Research Professor at Columbia University's Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory and a past President of the American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019–2021.

During the International Polar Year, Bell lead a major expedition the Antarctica to explore the last unknown mountain range on Earth the completely ice-covered Gamburtsev Mountains.

Late Cenozoic Ice Age

Ongoing.

Ongoing.

This type of vegetation grew in Antarctica during the Eocene Epoch - Photo taken at Palm Canyon, California, US in 2005
Antarctica from space on 21 September 2005
Arctic sea ice from space on 6 March 2010
Neanderthals during the last glacial period.
Map of the Northern Hemisphere ice during the last glacial maximum.
Agriculture and the rise of civilization came about during the current interglacial period.

Another ice cap formed in the Gamburtsev Mountain Range.