Gamete

gametesgameticreproductive cellsreproductive cellin vitro generated gametesmale germ cellssex chromosomesArtificial gameteseggs and spermgametes.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry" ) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce.wikipedia
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Fertilisation

fertilizationconceptionfertilized
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry" ) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see [[American and British English spelling differences#-ise.2C -ize .28-isation.2C -ization.29|spelling differences]]), also known as generative fertilisation, insemination, pollination, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism or offspring.

Sperm

sperm cellspermatiasperm cells
In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum— and a male produces the smaller tadpole-like type—called a sperm.
In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy, there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell.

Anisogamy

anisogamous
This is an example of anisogamy or heterogamy, the condition in which females and males produce gametes of different sizes (this is the case in humans; the human ovum has approximately 100,000 times the volume of a single human sperm cell ).
Anisogamy (also called heterogamy) is the form of sexual reproduction that involves the union or fusion of two gametes, which differ in size and/or form.

Female

femalesfeminine
In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum— and a male produces the smaller tadpole-like type—called a sperm.
The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male.

Isogamy

conjugationisogamousSexual conjugation
In contrast, isogamy is the state of gametes from both sexes being the same size and shape, and given arbitrary designators for mating type.
Isogamy is a form of sexual reproduction that involves gametes of similar morphology (similar shape and size), differing in general only in allele expression in one or more mating-type regions.

Male

malesmasculine
In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum— and a male produces the smaller tadpole-like type—called a sperm.
The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior (but different at the molecular level) to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is very much larger than the male and has no ability to move.

Ploidy

diploidhaploid2n
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry" ) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce. Gametes carry half the genetic information of an individual, one ploidy of each type, and are created through meiosis.
The haploid number (n) refers to the total number of chromosomes found in a gamete (a sperm or egg cell produced by meiosis in preparation for sexual reproduction).

Mating type

mating compatibility groupsmating typesmating-type
In contrast, isogamy is the state of gametes from both sexes being the same size and shape, and given arbitrary designators for mating type.
Depending on the group, different mating types are often referred to by numbers, letters, or simply "+" and "−" instead of "male" and "female", that refer to "sexes" or differences in size between gametes.

Egg cell

ovumovaegg
In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum— and a male produces the smaller tadpole-like type—called a sperm.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry" ) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Haploid cells serve as gametes in multicellular organisms, fusing to form new diploid cells.

Spermatozoon

spermatozoaspermsperm cells
This process also involves meiosis occurring in the diploid primary spermatocyte to produce the haploid spermatozoon.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from ("seed") and ("living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

Meiosis

meioticsyzygymeiosis I
Gametes carry half the genetic information of an individual, one ploidy of each type, and are created through meiosis.
In some cases all four of the meiotic products form gametes such as sperm, spores, or pollen.

Spermatogenesis

spermatogenicsperm productionproduction of sperm
Spermatogenesis is the process of male gamete formation in animals.
Spermatozoa are the mature male gametes in many sexually reproducing organisms.

Somatic cell

somatic cellssomaticvegetative cell
In contrast to a gamete, the diploid somatic cells of an individual contain one copy of the chromosome set from the sperm and one copy of the chromosome set from the egg cell; that is, the cells of the offspring have genes expressing characteristics of both the father and the mother.
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.

Heterogamy

heterogamousheterogamous capitulaalternating generations
This is an example of anisogamy or heterogamy, the condition in which females and males produce gametes of different sizes (this is the case in humans; the human ovum has approximately 100,000 times the volume of a single human sperm cell ).
In cell biology, heterogamy is a synonym of anisogamy, the condition of having differently sized male and female gametes produced by different sexes or mating types in a species.

Sex

biological sexsexesanatomical sex
Humans and most mammals use the XY sex-determination system in which a normal ovum can carry only an X chromosome (of the X and Y chromosomes), whereas a sperm may carry either an X or a Y (a non-normal ovum can end up carrying two or no X chromosomes, as a result of an irregularity at either of the two stages of meiosis, while a non-normal sperm cell can end up carrying either no sex-defining chromosomes, an XY pair, or XX pair as a result of the forementioned reason); ergo the male sperm determines the sex of any resulting zygote, if the zygote has two X chromosomes it will develop into a female, if it has an X and a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male.
Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.

Zygote

zygoticzygotesfertilized egg
Humans and most mammals use the XY sex-determination system in which a normal ovum can carry only an X chromosome (of the X and Y chromosomes), whereas a sperm may carry either an X or a Y (a non-normal ovum can end up carrying two or no X chromosomes, as a result of an irregularity at either of the two stages of meiosis, while a non-normal sperm cell can end up carrying either no sex-defining chromosomes, an XY pair, or XX pair as a result of the forementioned reason); ergo the male sperm determines the sex of any resulting zygote, if the zygote has two X chromosomes it will develop into a female, if it has an X and a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
Humans and most mammals use the XY sex-determination system in which a normal ovum can carry only an X chromosome (of the X and Y chromosomes), whereas a sperm may carry either an X or a Y (a non-normal ovum can end up carrying two or no X chromosomes, as a result of an irregularity at either of the two stages of meiosis, while a non-normal sperm cell can end up carrying either no sex-defining chromosomes, an XY pair, or XX pair as a result of the forementioned reason); ergo the male sperm determines the sex of any resulting zygote, if the zygote has two X chromosomes it will develop into a female, if it has an X and a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male.
Each somatic cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent; gametes have only one set of chromosomes, which is a mixture of the two parental sets.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
In contrast to a gamete, the diploid somatic cells of an individual contain one copy of the chromosome set from the sperm and one copy of the chromosome set from the egg cell; that is, the cells of the offspring have genes expressing characteristics of both the father and the mother.
Gametes, reproductive cells, are haploid [n]: They have one set of chromosomes.

Pollen

exinepollen grainmicrosporogenesis
The male haploid is pollen and is produced by the anther, when pollen lands on a mature stigma of a flower it grows a pollen tube down into the flower.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).

Alternation of generations

alternation of generationalternatingdiplohaplontic
However, since plants have an alternation of diploid and haploid generations some differences exist.
At maturity, the gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis, which does not alter the number of chromosomes.

Spermatocyte

spermatocytesprimary spermatocyteprimary spermatocytes
This process also involves meiosis occurring in the diploid primary spermatocyte to produce the haploid spermatozoon.

Y chromosome

Y-chromosomeY-DNAY
Humans and most mammals use the XY sex-determination system in which a normal ovum can carry only an X chromosome (of the X and Y chromosomes), whereas a sperm may carry either an X or a Y (a non-normal ovum can end up carrying two or no X chromosomes, as a result of an irregularity at either of the two stages of meiosis, while a non-normal sperm cell can end up carrying either no sex-defining chromosomes, an XY pair, or XX pair as a result of the forementioned reason); ergo the male sperm determines the sex of any resulting zygote, if the zygote has two X chromosomes it will develop into a female, if it has an X and a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male.
XX male syndrome occurs when there has been a recombination in the formation of the male gametes, causing the SRY portion of the Y chromosome to move to the X chromosome.

Pollen tube

pollen tubespollen-tubepollen tube growth and guidance
The male haploid is pollen and is produced by the anther, when pollen lands on a mature stigma of a flower it grows a pollen tube down into the flower.
The sperm cells are the male gametes that will join with the egg cell and the central cell in double fertilization.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry" ) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization in organisms that sexually reproduce.