Gamma-Butyrolactone

γ-butyrolactoneGBLgamma''-Butyrolactonegamma butyrolactone1,4-lactone4-butyrolactonebutyrolactonesRenewtrienty-butyrolactone-like
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.wikipedia
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Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational CNS depressant with effects similar to barbiturates.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

GHBγ-hydroxybutyric acidgamma-hydroxybutyrate
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational CNS depressant with effects similar to barbiturates. As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.
Some prodrugs, such as γ-butyrolactone (GBL), convert to GHB in the stomach and blood stream.

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

GABAγ-aminobutyric acidGABAergic
An alternative route proceeds from GABA using the Sandmeyer reaction.

Electrolytic capacitor

electrolytic capacitorselectrolyticAluminum capacitors
Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability and high dielectric constant, is used in some batteries but primarily is found in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent.
Non-solid electrolytic capacitors using organic solvents like GBL as electrolyte do not have problems with high leakage current after longer storage times.

1,4-Butanediol

BDbutanediols
γ-Butyrolactone is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol at a temperature of 180–300 °C and atmospheric pressure in the presence of a copper catalyst.
In organic chemistry, 1,4-butanediol is used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL).

Hygroscopy

hygroscopicdeliquescenthygroscopicity
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.

Odor

aromascentodour
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.

Lactone

lactonesdilactonelactonization
It is the simplest 4-carbon lactone. As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

N-methylpyrrolidonemethylpyrrolidoneN''-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
It is mainly used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, e.g. methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

Prodrug

pro-drugprodrugsinactive prodrug
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational CNS depressant with effects similar to barbiturates.

Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalsleeping pill
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational CNS depressant with effects similar to barbiturates.

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

GC-MSgas chromatography-mass spectrometryGC/MS
The concentration detected was approximately 5 μg/mL and was easily observed using a simple extraction technique followed by GC/MS analysis.

Tetrahydrofuran

THFOxolane1,4-Epoxybutane
In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran (THF), for example with aqueous sodium bromate.

Sodium bromate

NaBrO 3
In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran (THF), for example with aqueous sodium bromate.

Sandmeyer reaction

Sandmeyer
An alternative route proceeds from GABA using the Sandmeyer reaction.

Hydrolysis

hydrolyzedhydrolysehydrolyze
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Base (chemistry)

basebasicbases
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Sodium hydroxide

caustic sodaNaOHsodium
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Sodium oxybate

Xyremsodium ''gamma''-hydroxybutyrate
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Chemical equilibrium

equilibriumchemical equilibriaequilibria
In acidic water, a mixture of the lactone and acid forms coexist in an equilibrium.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly(4-hydroxybutyrate).

Polyhydroxybutyrate

poly-3-hydroxybutyratepoly-β-hydroxybutyratepoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)
These compounds then may go on to form the polymer poly(4-hydroxybutyrate).