Gamma-Butyrolactone

γ-butyrolactoneGBLbutyrolactonegamma butyrolactonegamma''-Butyrolactone1,4-lactone4-butyrolactonebutyrolactonesRenewtrienty-butyrolactone-like
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.wikipedia
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N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

methylpyrrolidoneN''-methyl-2-pyrrolidoneN''-methylpyrrolidone
It is mainly used as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, e.g. methyl-2-pyrrolidone.
NMP is produced industrially by a typical ester-to-amide conversion, by treating butyrolactone with methylamine.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to barbiturates.
gamma-butyrolactone (GBL, a prodrug to GHB)

Lactone

lactonesdilactonelactonization
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.
Lactone rings occur widely as building blocks in nature, such as in ascorbic acid, kavain, nepetalactone, gluconolactone, hormones (spironolactone, mevalonolactone), enzymes (lactonase), neurotransmitters (butyrolactone, avermectins), antibiotics (macrolides like erythromycin; amphotericin B), anticancer drugs (vernolepin, epothilones), phytoestrogens (resorcylic acid lactones, cardiac glycosides).

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

GHBγ-hydroxybutyric acidgamma-hydroxybutyrate
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to barbiturates. As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.
Some prodrugs convert to GHB in the stomach and blood stream, such as γ-butyrolactone (GBL).

2-Pyrrolidone

pyrrolidone2-Pyrrolidinonepyrrolidinone
Ammonia gives pyrrolidone.
It is produced industrially by treating butyrolactone with ammonia.

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

GABAγ-aminobutyric acidGABAergic
An alternative route proceeds from GABA using the sandmeyer reaction.
Agonists: baclofen, GBL, propofol, GHB, phenibut.

Electrolytic capacitor

electrolytic capacitorselectrolyticAluminum capacitors
Butyrolactone, with its wide liquid range, chemical stability and high dielectric constant, is used in some batteries but primarily is found in electrolytic capacitors as the organic solvent.
Non-solid electrolytic capacitors using organic solvents like GBL as electrolyte do not have problems with high leakage current after longer storage times.

1,4-Butanediol

BDbutanediols
GBL is produced industrially by dehydrogenation of 1,4-butanediol.
In organic chemistry, 1,4-butanediol is used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL).

Ring-opening polymerization

polymerizationring opening polymerizationring opening polymerizations
The ring-opening polymerization of butyrolactone gives polybutyrolactone.
As an example of copolymerization of non-homopolymerizable monomers, γ-butyrolactone (BL) and ε-caprolactone (CL) show that the copolymerization provides high molar mass polymers: The BL/CL copolymer synthesis is viable despite the fact that BL monomer addition to its own –bl* active chain ends was highly reversible, as the –bl* unit could be blocked via a practically irreversible CL addition.

Hygroscopy

hygroscopicdeliquescenthygroscopicity
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.

Odor

aromascentodour
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.

Prodrug

pro-drugprodrugsinactive prodrug
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to barbiturates.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to barbiturates.

Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalgoofballs
In humans GBL acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to barbiturates.

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

gas chromatography-mass spectrometryGC-MSgas chromatography
The concentration detected was approximately 5 μg/mL and was easily observed using a simple extraction technique followed by GC/MS analysis.

Dehydration reaction

dehydrationdehydrateddehydration synthesis
This route proceeds via dehydration of GHB.

Tetrahydrofuran

THF1,4-Epoxybutaneoxolane
In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran (THF), for example with aqueous sodium bromate.

Sodium bromate

NaBrO 3
In the laboratory, it may also be obtained via the oxidation of tetrahydrofuran (THF), for example with aqueous sodium bromate.

Sandmeyer reaction

Sandmeyer
An alternative route proceeds from GABA using the sandmeyer reaction.

Hydrolysis

hydrolyzedhydrolysehydrolyze
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Base (chemistry)

basebasicbases
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Sodium hydroxide

caustic sodaNaOHsodium
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Solution

solutesolutessolutions
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Sodium oxybate

sodium ''gamma''-hydroxybutyrate
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
As a lactone, GBL is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, for example in a sodium hydroxide solution into sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate, the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.