Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)
The 6000 km journey of the India landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago
Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
Icefall on Khumbu Glacier
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
Gurudongmar Lake in Sikkim
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.

The 2525 km river starts in the western Himalayas in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.

- Ganges

Some of the world's major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges, and the Tsangpo–Brahmaputra, rise in the vicinity of the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to some 600 million people; 53 million people live in the Himalayas.

- Himalayas
Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)

14 related topics

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Bangladesh

Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
7th century buddhist monastery. Known as Somapura Mahavihara
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected Mosque City of Bagerhat.
Choto Sona Mosque, built during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah
Kusumba Mosque
Shipbuilding was a major industry in the Bengal Sultanate and later in Mughal Bengal
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Founding conference of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka, 1906
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East Bengal its eastern part
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (left) and Munier Chowdhury (centre) visiting Matiul Islam (right), an East Bengali student at Harvard during the late 1950s
Museum of Independence, Dhaka
Sheikh Mujib casting his ballot during a general election. He was given the popular title of Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) and is regarded as Bangladesh's founding leader.
Ziaur Rahman with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978
Muhammad Yunus (center) celebrating the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 with his family in Oslo, Norway
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar
Physical map of Bangladesh
A Bengal tiger, the national animal, in the Sundarbans
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka
The National Parliament of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force deployments
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)
U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses
Historical development of GDP per capita
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).
A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines
Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011
In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia Space
The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year
Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts
Faculty of Sciences at the University of Dhaka; The Curzon Hall
A Bangladeshi nurse in Kutupalong Refugee Camp
Historical development of life expectancy in Bangladesh
A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct
Syed Mujtaba Ali
Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898
The 18th century terracotta Hindu Kantanagar Temple in Dinajpur
A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia
Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition
Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha
A Nouka Baich boat race
Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah
Beds of zamindars kept at the Bangladesh National Museum

The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, and estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permitted maritime trade.

The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas, and the widespread cutting down of trees (that would have intercepted rain water) for firewood or animal husbandry.

Map of Bay of Bengal

Bay of Bengal

Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Map of Bay of Bengal
Ross Island, in the Andamans, was one of the main naval bases of India during World War II
The Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the shore of the Bay of Bengal.
Image of United States ships participating in the Malabar 2007 naval exercise. Aegis cruisers from the navies of Japan and Australia, and logistical support ships from Singapore and India in the Bay of Bengal took part.
Samudra arati or worship of the sea by disciples of the Govardhan Matha at Puri
The Sunderbans bordering the Bay of Bengal is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world.
Cox's Bazar, the longest stretch of beach in the world.
Havelock Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
The city of Visakhapatnam in India is a major port of the Bay of Bengal.
Bay of Bengal near Tenneti Park, Visakhapatnam.
A spinner dolphin in Bay of Bengal
Tachypleus gigas in Odisha
Some small fishing boats are catching fish & sell them in local coastal markets.
Cyclone Sidr at its peak near Bangladesh

A number of large rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal: the Ganges–Hooghly, the Padma, the Brahmaputra–Jamuna, the Barak–Surma–Meghna, the Irrawaddy, the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Brahmani, the Baitarani, the Krishna and the Kaveri.

The fan is about 3000 km long, 1430 km wide with a maximum thickness of 16.5 km. The fan resulted from the uplift and erosion of the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau produced by the collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.

Brahmaputra River

Trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, China, India, and Bangladesh.

Trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, China, India, and Bangladesh.

Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet
Yarlung Tsangpo
Brahmaputra basin in India
A view of sunset in the Brahmaputra from Dibrugarh
Rivers of Bangladesh, including the Brahmaputra
The Brahmaputra River from Space
Rowing competition of Sualkuchi at Brahmaputra River
Flooded villages along the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra River seen from a SPOT satellite
The Brahmaputra and its tributaries in northeastern India and Bangladesh
James Rennell's 1776 map shows the Brahmaputra's flow before an earthquake on 2 April 1762 and the Teesta River flowing in three channels to the Ganga before a flood in 1787.
Silhouette of a fisherman on boat during sunset at Brahmaputra River
An Aerial view of the Dhola–Sadiya Bridge
Ranaghat Bridge or Churni River Bridge on Brahmaputra River near Pasighat in Arunachal Pradesh

With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake region, near Mount Kailash, on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet where it is known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows along southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh.

In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Ganges, popularly known as the Padma in Bangladesh, and becomes the Meghna and ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal.

Kangchenjunga and surrounding peaks at sunset from ISS, December 2019

Kangchenjunga

Third highest mountain in the world.

Third highest mountain in the world.

Kangchenjunga and surrounding peaks at sunset from ISS, December 2019
Kangchenjunga map by Garwood, 1903
Southwest (Yalung) face of Kangchenjunga seen from Nepal
Kanchenjunga-north from base camp in Nepal
Painting of Kanchinjínga as seen from the Singalila Ridge by Hermann Schlagintweit, 1855
Sunset on Kangchenjunga, 1905
South face of Kangchenjunga seen from Goecha La, Sikkim at 4940 m
Kangchenjunga seen from Darjeeling War Memorial
A sign board on the last traversable road to Kangchenjunga
First ascent reunion of 1990– front (left to right): Neil Mather, John Angelo Jackson, Charles Evans and Joe Brown and rear (left to right): Tony Streather, Norman Hardie, George Band, and Professor John Clegg.
Kanchenjunga from Tiger Hill at dawn
Kanchenjunga as seen from Gangtok, Sikkim
Five Treasures of Snow
Kangchenjunga seen from Tetulia, Panchagarh, Northern Bangladesh.
East face of Kangchenjunga, from near the Zemu Glacier, Sikkim
View of Kangchenjunga as seen from Darjeeling
North face of Kangchenjunga from Pang Pema, Nepal

Its summit lies at 8586 m in a section of the Himalayas, the Kangchenjunga Himal, which is bounded on the west by the Tamur River, in the north by the Lhonak Chu and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta River.

Kangchenjunga is one of six peaks above 8000 m located in the basin of the Koshi river, which is among the largest tributaries of the Ganges.

Map of the Sundarbans

Sundarbans

Mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of the Padma, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal.

Mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of the Padma, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal.

Map of the Sundarbans
Ecoregion IM406, also known as the Sundarbans Mangroves ecoregion
During monsoon the paddy fields in the Sunderbans are entirely flooded.
Police Boat Patrolling in Sundarban National Park, West Bengal
A map of the protected areas of the Indian Sunderbans, showing the boundaries of the tiger reserve, the national park and the three wildlife sanctuaries, conservation and lodging centres, subsistence towns, and access points. The entire forested (dark green) area constitutes the Biosphere Reserve, with the remaining forests outside the national park and wildlife sanctuaries being given the status of a reserve forest.

The Sundarban forest lies in the vast delta on the Bay of Bengal formed by the super confluence of the Hooghly, Padma (both are distributaries of Ganges), Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers across southern Bangladesh.

A 1990 study noted that there "is no evidence that environmental degradation in the Himalayas or a 'greenhouse' induced rise in sea level have aggravated floods in Bangladesh"; however, a 2007 report by UNESCO, "Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage" has stated that an anthropogenic 45 cm rise in sea level (likely by the end of the 21st century, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), combined with other forms of anthropogenic stress on the Sundarbans, could lead to the destruction of 75 percent of the Sundarbans mangroves.

Gangotri

Town and a Nagar Panchayat in Uttarkashi district in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Town and a Nagar Panchayat in Uttarkashi district in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Bhagirathi River and Himalayas in Gangotri, Uttarakhand
Gaumukh, source of the Ganges above Gangotri
Brahma Kamal Saussurea obvallata.<ref>Brahma Kamal</ref>

It is a Hindu pilgrim town on the banks of the river Bhagirathi – the origin of the river Ganges.

The town is located on the Greater Himalayan Range, at a height of 3100 m. According to popular Hindu legend, Goddess Ganga descended here when Lord Shiva released the mighty river from the locks of his hair.

Uttarakhand

State in the northern part of India.

State in the northern part of India.

Rope bridge across Alaknanda River at Srinagar, 1784-94 &ndash; the capital of the Garhwal Kingdom
Fort of Champawat, 1815 &ndash; the first capital of the Chand kings of Kumaon Kingdom
Uttarakhand as a part of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces
Uttarakhand as a part of Uttar Pradesh, 1950–2000
With the elevation of 7816 m above sea level, Nanda Devi is the highest mountain in Uttarakhand and the second-highest mountain in India, following Kangchenjunga in Sikkim.
With the elevation of 190 m above sea level, Sharda Sagar Reservoir is the lowest land point in Uttarakhand.
Topography of Uttarakhand.
Kumaon and Garhwal in Uttarakhand
Sumitranandan Pant Museum, Kausani
Bal Mithai, a popular sweet from Kumaon
Women performing Chanchari &ndash; a popular folk dance from Danpur region in Kumaon.
Pilgrims gather for the third Shahi Snan ("royal bath") at Har Ki Pauri in Haridwar, Uttarakhand on 14 April 2010 during Haridwar Kumbh Mela.
A woman winnowing rice, an important food crop in Uttarakhand.
Jolly Grant Airport, Dehradun
Schematic tourist map of Uttarakhand.
Garhwal Himalaya mountain range in Kedarnath, Uttarakhand.
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium in Dehradun.
Mahasu Devta Temple at Hanol is notable for its traditional wooden architecture.
Architectural details of a Dharamshala, established 1822, Haridwar.
Abhisarika Nayika, a painting by Mola Ram.
The releasing of the Uttaranchal crafts map
Alpine Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster)
Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora)
Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus)
West Himalayan Common Peacock (Papilio bianor polyctor)
Brahma Kamal (Saussurea obvallata)
Burans (Rhododendron arboreum)
Kaphal (Myrica esculenta)
Kandali (Urtica dioica)
Valley of Flowers National Park
View of a Bugyal (meadow) in Uttarakhand
Har Ki Doon, a high-altitude hanging valley
Rishikesh view and 13 stories Shiva temple across Lakshman Jhula bridge over the Ganges
Kedarnath Temple is one of the 12 Jyotirlingas

Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabar and the Terai regions.

Two of the most important rivers in Hinduism originate in the glaciers of Uttarakhand, the Ganges at Gangotri and the Yamuna at Yamunotri.

Himachal Pradesh

State in the northern part of India.

State in the northern part of India.

Bathu ki Ladi Temples, near Maharana Pratap Sagar in Kangra are believed to be constructed by Pandavas
Topographic map of Himachal Pradesh. Most of the state is mountainous.
Tributary of Chandra, Lahaul and Spiti, from Rohtang Pass (elev. 3,980 m, 13,058 ft)
Indian paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi) in Kullu
Black bulbul (Hypsipetes leucocephalus)
High Court of Himachal Pradesh
Town Hall in Shimla
The Mall Road is the central business district of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh's capital city.
Terrace farming is the most common form of agricultural practice in the state.
Apple blossoms in Manali, Himachal Pradesh
Tea gardens in Dharamsala
Paragliding in Bir Billing.
Khirganga is one of the most popular treks in Himachal.
Gaggal Airport
Kalka-Shimla Railway
Kangra Valley Railway
NH 5 in Himachal Pradesh
A man in Kullu, wearing a traditional Himachali cap.
A village in Mandi district
Kibber Village, Spiti
Gaddi nomads
Indira Gandhi Medical College and Hospital at Shimla
Indian Institute of Advanced Study at Shimla
IIT Mandi campus, Jan '20

After independence, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh was organised on 15 April 1948 as a result of the integration of 28 petty princely states (including feudal princes and zaildars) in the promontories of the western Himalayas.

Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Indus and Ganges basins.

Aerial photo from the south, with Mount Everest rising above the ridge connecting Nuptse and Lhotse

Mount Everest

Aerial photo from the south, with Mount Everest rising above the ridge connecting Nuptse and Lhotse
Everest and Lhotse from the south. In the foreground are Thamserku, Kangtega, and Ama Dablam
Mount Everest from 12,007 m
The name "Mount Everest" was first proposed in this 1856 speech, later published in 1857, in which the mountain was first confirmed as the world's highest
Mount Everest relief map
Published by the Survey of Nepal, this is Map 50 of the 57 map set at 1:50,000 scale "attached to the main text on the First Joint Inspection Survey, 1979–80, Nepal-China border." At the top centre, a boundary line, identified as separating "China" and "Nepal", passes through the summit contour. The boundary here and for much of the China–Nepal border follows the main Himalayan watershed divide.
Kangshung Face (the east face) as seen from orbit
Mount Everest with snow melted, showing upper geologic layers in bands.
A yak at around 4,790 m (15,715 ft)
Climbers below the Geneva Spur
Reunion of the 1953 British team
1952 documentary
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay
Confirmation of the summit obtained by Nepal's Ministry of Tourism
Small avalanche on Everest, 2006
Ascents of Mount Everest by year through 2010
The sun rising on Everest in 2011
Selfie on the summit, 2012
Mount Everest, 2014
The location of the fatal ice avalanche on the 2014 route, and the revised 2015 route through the Khumbu.
Everest, April 2015
Mount Everest in the upper left (March 2018)
Looking up along the southern ridgeline, the face of the Hillary Step is visible. The top of the South-West face is on the left in shadow, and in the light to the right is the top of the East/Kangshung face. In 2016 and 2017 there were serious reports that the Hillary Step was changed, which triggered a big discussion in the climbing community. (2010 photo)
Overview South Col route and North Col/Ridge route
Climber traversing Khumbu Icefall
Mount Everest north face from Rongbuk in Tibet
A view from the summit of Mount Everest in May 2013
The summit of Mount Everest from the North side
From Kala Patthar, Nepal
Climber at the summit wearing an oxygen mask
Available oxygen at Everest
Everest in September 2006
The Khumbu Icefall in 2005
The Western Cwm ("Coom"), with Everest on the left and Lhotse to the right
Photo of a Eurocopter AS350 B3 "Squirrel"
Top down view showing the location of the summit, and its three main faces/sides
Everest base camp
Gorak Shep is about a three-hour walk to South EBC (Everest Base Camp).
A paraglider at Neustift, Tirol, Austria
The Rongphu Monastery, with Mount Everest in the background
1890 graphic with the Himalayas, including Gaurisankar (Mount Everest) in the distance

Mount Everest (सगरमाथा; Tibetan: Chomolungma ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ; ) is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.

Nicolson retreated to Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations.

Gomukh

Gangotri Glacier

Located in Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India in a region bordering Tibet.

Located in Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India in a region bordering Tibet.

Gomukh
A small shrine at Gaumukh, Gangotri glacier.
Retreat of Gangotri Glacier

This glacier, one of the primary sources of the Ganges, is one of the largest in the Himalayas with an estimated volume of over 27 cubic kilometers.