A report on Ganges and Mount Kailash

Thangka depicting Mount Kailash
Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.
The Ganges at Sultanganj.

The mountain is located near Lake Manasarovar and Lake Rakshastal, close to the source of some of the longest Asian rivers: the Indus; Sutlej; Brahmaputra; and Karnali, also known as Ghaghara (a tributary of the Ganges) in India.

- Mount Kailash

However, since her turbulent force would also shatter the earth, Bhagiratha persuades Shiva in his abode on Mount Kailash to receive the Ganges in the coils of his tangled hair and break her fall.

- Ganges

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Shiva

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One of the principal deities of Hinduism.

One of the principal deities of Hinduism.

An ancient sculpture of Shiva at the Elephanta Caves, Maharashtra. 6th century CE
The Pashupati seal discovered during excavation of the Indus Valley archaeological site of Mohenjo-Daro and showing a possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva" figure as Paśupati (= "Lord of the Animals"). Circa 2350-2000 BCE
Three-headed Shiva, Gandhara, 2nd century AD
Lingodbhava is a Shaiva sectarian icon where Shiva is depicted rising from the Lingam (an infinite fiery pillar) that narrates how Shiva is the foremost of the Trimurti; Brahma on the left and Vishnu on the right are depicted bowing to Shiva in the centre.
Ardhanarishvara sculpture, Khajuraho, depicting Shiva with goddess Parvati as his equal half. In the Ardhanarisvara concept, the icon is presented as half-man and half woman.
Oleograph by Raja Ravi Varma depicting a Shiva-centric Panchayatana. A bearded Shiva sits in the centre with his wife Parvati and their infant son Ganesha; surrounded by (clockwise from left upper corner) Ganesha, Devi, Vishnu, and Surya. Shiva's mount is the bull Nandi below Shiva.
Shiva with Parvati. Shiva is depicted three-eyed, the Ganges flowing through his matted hair, wearing ornaments of serpents and a skull garland, covered in ashes, and seated on a tiger skin.
A seated Shiva holds an axe and deer in his hands.
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Chola dynasty statue depicting Shiva dancing as Nataraja (Los Angeles County Museum of Art)
The 10th century five headed Shiva, Sadashiva, Cambodia
Shiva Lingam with tripundra
Shiva sculpture, Dieng Plateau in Java, Indonesia
Mahakala, c. 1500 CE Tibetan Thangka

In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives an ascetic life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with his wife Parvati and his two children, Ganesha and Kartikeya.

The iconographical attributes of Shiva are the serpent around his neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river Ganga flowing from his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead (the eye that turns everything in front of it into ashes when opened), the trishula or trident as his weapon, and the damaru drum.

Brahmaputra River

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Trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, India, and Bangladesh.

Trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, India, and Bangladesh.

Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet
Yarlung Tsangpo
Brahmaputra basin in India
A view of sunset in the Brahmaputra from Dibrugarh
Rivers of Bangladesh, including the Brahmaputra
The Brahmaputra River from Space
Rowing competition of Sualkuchi at Brahmaputra River
Flooded villages along the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra River seen from a SPOT satellite
The Brahmaputra and its tributaries in northeastern India and Bangladesh
James Rennell's 1776 map shows the Brahmaputra's flow before an earthquake on 2 April 1762 and the Teesta River flowing in three channels to the Ganga before a flood in 1787.
Silhouette of a fisherman on boat during sunset at Brahmaputra River
An Aerial view of the Dhola–Sadiya Bridge
Ranaghat Bridge or Churni River Bridge on Brahmaputra River near Pasighat in Arunachal Pradesh

With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake region, near Mount Kailash, on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet where it is known as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows along southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh.

In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Ganges, popularly known as the Padma in Bangladesh, and becomes the Meghna and ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal.

Indus River

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Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
Indus at Skardu
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan

The traditional source of the river is the Sênggê Kanbab (a.k.a. Sênggê Zangbo, Senge Khabab) or "Lion's Mouth", a perennial spring, not far from the sacred Mount Kailash marked by a long low line of Tibetan chortens.

Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time.