A report on Ganges and Padma River

Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
A map showing the major rivers that flow into the Bay of Bengal, including Padma.
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
Padma River and boats (1860)
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
Hardinge Bridge in Bangladesh
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
Sunset from Padma River
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
A view of Padma river in summer near Rajshahi
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
Sunset from the river Padma during monsoon, Rajpara, Rajshahi
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
Sky over river padma
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Engine Boat at Padma river
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Speedboat at Padma River
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.
The Ganges at Sultanganj.

It is the main distributary of the Ganges, flowing generally southeast for 120 km to its confluence with the Meghna River near the Bay of Bengal.

- Padma River

The Ganges continues into Bangladesh, its name changing to the Padma.

- Ganges

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Overall

Map of Bay of Bengal

Bay of Bengal

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Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India.

Map of Bay of Bengal
Ross Island, in the Andamans, was one of the main naval bases of India during World War II
The Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the shore of the Bay of Bengal.
Image of United States ships participating in the Malabar 2007 naval exercise. Aegis cruisers from the navies of Japan and Australia, and logistical support ships from Singapore and India in the Bay of Bengal took part.
Samudra arati or worship of the sea by disciples of the Govardhan Matha at Puri
The Sunderbans bordering the Bay of Bengal is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world.
Cox's Bazar, the longest stretch of beach in the world.
Havelock Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands
The city of Visakhapatnam in India is a major port of the Bay of Bengal.
Bay of Bengal near Tenneti Park, Visakhapatnam.
A spinner dolphin in Bay of Bengal
Tachypleus gigas in Odisha
Some small fishing boats are catching fish & sell them in local coastal markets.
Cyclone Sidr at its peak near Bangladesh

A number of large rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal: the Ganges–Hooghly, the Padma, the Brahmaputra–Yamuna, the Barak–Surma–Meghna, the Irrawaddy, the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Brahmani, the Baitarani, the Krishna and the Kaveri.

Bangladesh

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Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.

Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
7th century buddhist monastery. Known as Somapura Mahavihara
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected Mosque City of Bagerhat.
Choto Sona Mosque, built during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah
Kusumba Mosque
Shipbuilding was a major industry in the Bengal Sultanate and later in Mughal Bengal
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Founding conference of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka, 1906
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East Bengal its eastern part
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (left) and Munier Chowdhury (centre) visiting Matiul Islam (right), an East Bengali student at Harvard during the late 1950s
Museum of Independence, Dhaka
Sheikh Mujib casting his ballot during a general election. He was given the popular title of Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) and is regarded as Bangladesh's founding leader.
Ziaur Rahman with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978
Muhammad Yunus (center) celebrating the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 with his family in Oslo, Norway
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar
Physical map of Bangladesh
A Bengal tiger, the national animal, in the Sundarbans
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka
The National Parliament of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force deployments
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)
U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses
Historical development of GDP per capita
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).
A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines
Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011
In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia Space
The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year
Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts
Faculty of Sciences at the University of Dhaka; The Curzon Hall
A Bangladeshi nurse in Kutupalong Refugee Camp
Historical development of life expectancy in Bangladesh
A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct
Syed Mujtaba Ali
Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898
The 18th century terracotta Hindu Kantanagar Temple in Dinajpur
A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia
Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition
Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha
A Nouka Baich boat race
Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah
Beds of zamindars kept at the Bangladesh National Museum

The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation, and estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permitted maritime trade.

The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries.

West Bengal

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West Bengal (, Bengali: Poshchim Bongo,, abbr.

West Bengal (, Bengali: Poshchim Bongo,, abbr.

Coin of the King Shashanka, who created the first separate political entity in Bengal, called the Gauda Kingdom
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
Firoz Minar at Gauḍa was built during the Bengal Sultanate.
An 1880 map of Bengal
Subhas Chandra Bose, he was a leading freedom fighter of India
The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999.
Many areas remain flooded during the heavy rains brought by a monsoon.
Districts of West Bengal
A hut in a village in the Hooghly district
The Grand Hotel in Kolkata. Tourism, especially from Bangladesh, is an important part of West Bengal's economy.
Freshly sown saplings of rice in a paddy; in the background are stacks of jute sticks.
Satyajit Ray, a pioneer in Bengali cinema along with Ravi Sankar.
Panchchura Temple in Bishnupur, one of the older examples of the terracotta arts of India.
Jamdani Sari of Bangladesh is very popular in West Bengal.
Salt Lake Stadium / Vivekananda Yuva Bharati Krirangan, Kolkata
Netaji Indoor Stadium, Kolkata
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport is a hub for flights to and from Bangladesh, East Asia, Nepal, Bhutan and north-east India.
Durgapur Expressway
An SBSTC bus in Karunamoyee
Kolkata Metro, India's first metro rail system
University of Calcutta, the oldest public university of India.
The front entrance to the academic block of NUJS, Kolkata.
Prajna Bhavan, housing the School of Mathematical Sciences and School of RKMVU.

One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100BCE of a land named Gangaridai located at the mouths of the Ganges.

One branch enters Bangladesh as the Padma, or Pôdda, while the other flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River.

Map of the Sundarbans

Sundarbans

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Map of the Sundarbans
Ecoregion IM406, also known as the Sundarbans Mangroves ecoregion
During monsoon the paddy fields in the Sunderbans are entirely flooded.
Police Boat Patrolling in Sundarban National Park, West Bengal
A map of the protected areas of the Indian Sunderbans, showing the boundaries of the tiger reserve, the national park and the three wildlife sanctuaries, conservation and lodging centres, subsistence towns, and access points. The entire forested (dark green) area constitutes the Biosphere Reserve, with the remaining forests outside the national park and wildlife sanctuaries being given the status of a reserve forest.

Sundarbans is a mangrove area in the delta formed by the confluence of the Padma, Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal.

The Sundarban forest lies in the vast delta on the Bay of Bengal formed by the super confluence of the Hooghly, Padma (both are distributaries of Ganges), Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers across southern Bangladesh.

Hooghly River

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Sunset at River Hooghly, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
A ferry operating between Howrah and Kolkata with Howrah Bridge (Rabindra Setu) in background
Panoramic view of Kolkata from Howrah with Second Hooghly Bridge
Ganga Arati on the banks of the Hooghly river, Howrah
The Hooghly River from the Harvest Fields of Bengal, c. 1905
Hooghly River near Diamond Harbour
Boats on Hooghly River
Hooghly River in Kolkata
Boats and men on the banks of the Hooghly river, 1915
The Floatel in Kolkata located on the river
The Prinsep Ghat which is located on the bank of the Hooghly River
Char on the river at Bansberia, Hooghly district
Boats on the river at Shimurali, Nadia district
The river behind Hazarduari Palace in Murshidabad district
The city of Kolkata lies along the banks of the Hooghly
Boat seen from the bank of the Hoogly River at Kolkata

The Hooghly River (Anglicized alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) or the Bhāgirathi-Hooghly, called the 'Ganga' or the 'Kati-Ganga' in mythological texts, is the eastern distributary of the Ganges River in West Bengal, India, rising close to Giria in Murshidabad.

The main distributary of the Ganges then flows into Bangladesh as the Padma.

Brahmaputra River

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Trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, India, and Bangladesh.

Trans-boundary river which flows through Tibet, India, and Bangladesh.

Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet
Yarlung Tsangpo
Brahmaputra basin in India
A view of sunset in the Brahmaputra from Dibrugarh
Rivers of Bangladesh, including the Brahmaputra
The Brahmaputra River from Space
Rowing competition of Sualkuchi at Brahmaputra River
Flooded villages along the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra River seen from a SPOT satellite
The Brahmaputra and its tributaries in northeastern India and Bangladesh
James Rennell's 1776 map shows the Brahmaputra's flow before an earthquake on 2 April 1762 and the Teesta River flowing in three channels to the Ganga before a flood in 1787.
Silhouette of a fisherman on boat during sunset at Brahmaputra River
An Aerial view of the Dhola–Sadiya Bridge
Ranaghat Bridge or Churni River Bridge on Brahmaputra River near Pasighat in Arunachal Pradesh

In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Ganges, popularly known as the Padma in Bangladesh, and becomes the Meghna and ultimately empties into the Bay of Bengal.

Hardinge Bridge in February 2013

Hardinge Bridge

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Hardinge Bridge in February 2013
Hardinge Bridge in August 2019
Hardinge Bridge construction (1910)

Hardinge Bridge is a steel railway truss bridge over the Padma River located at Ishwardi, Pabna and Bheramara, and Kushtia in Bangladesh.

A technical committee reported that a bridge could be constructed at Sara crossing the lower Ganges between the Paksey and Bheramara Upazila stations on the broad gauge railway from Khulna to Parbatipur Upazila.