A report on Ganges and Patna

Statue of Matrikas found near Agam Kuan, built by Ashoka.
Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
Main street of Patna, showing one side of the Chowk, 1814–15.
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
City of Patna, on the River Ganges, 19th-century painting.
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
Map of Patna district
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
Monsoon clouds over Priyadarshi Nagar, a part of Kankarbagh- residential area in Eastern Patna.
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
Maurya Lok is one of the oldest and major shopping area of the city
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
The Mahavir Mandir is a famous temple in Patna.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
Bhootnath Road TV Tower broadcasts programming to Patna
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Jay Prakash Narayan Airport, Patna
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Patna Junction Railway Station, Patna
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Magahi folk singers
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Gandhi Maidan (shown above) lies in the heart of Patna and is the site for most political and social functions in the city.
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Golghar was originally built to serve as a granary for the British East India company army during the famine of 1786. It now features an observation deck overlooking the Ganges and the city.
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Sabhyata Dwar in Patna
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Indian Institute of Technology Patna at Bihta, one of the premier institutes of engineering and research in India.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
Patna College, established 1863, is considered to be the oldest institution of higher education in Bihar.
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Moin-Ul-Haque Stadium near Rajendra Nagar, used for cricket and association football.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
Pataliputra as a capital of the Magadha Empire.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
Pataliputra as a capital of Maurya Empire. The Maurya Empire at its largest extent under Ashoka the Great.
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Pataliputra as a capital of Shunga Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Shunga Empire (c. 185 BCE).
Ganges from Space
Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire.
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
Street in Patna, 1825 (British, active in India)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
Golghar at Bankipore, near Patna, 1814–15
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
State Bank of India- Patna Regional office at East Gandhi Maidan Marg
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
Reserve Bank of India's regional office at South Gandhi Maidan Marg, Patna
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.
A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festival
People Celebrating Chhath Festival the 2nd Day at Morning a tribute to the rising holy God Sun
A game of cricket in progress
Kankarbagh Indoor Stadium at Patliputra Sports Complex during Pro Kabaddi League match
The Ganges at Sultanganj.

The modern city of Patna is mainly on the southern bank of the river Ganges.

- Patna

It has been important historically, with many former provincial or imperial capitals such as Pataliputra, Kannauj, Kara, Munger, Kashi, Patna, Hajipur, Delhi, Bhagalpur, Murshidabad, Baharampur, Kampilya, and Kolkata located on its banks or the banks of tributaries and connected waterways.

- Ganges

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Overall

Bihar

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State in eastern India.

State in eastern India.

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(Sitting L to R): Rajendra Prasad and Anugrah Narayan Sinha during Mahatma Gandhi's 1917 Champaran Satyagraha
Kathak classical dance form, from Bhojpur region
Patna river port on national inland waterways-1 at Gai Ghat
Front view of administrative building of IIT Patna
NIT Patna main building

The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges, which flows from west to east.

It had its capital at Pataliputra (modern Patna).

Panorama of the Kali Gandaki gorge in Upper Mustang

Gandaki River

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Panorama of the Kali Gandaki gorge in Upper Mustang
Kali Gandaki river north of Kagbeni
In Nepal, the river quickly crosses different climate zones
Gandaki River flows through a pine forest 25 km downstream from the place above
River Gandaki in Kagbeni Nepal
Kali Gandaki River near Ghasa, between Annapurna and Dhaulagiri
Gandaki river that divides Syangja District and Palpa District in Ramghat
Muktinath Vaishnava temple idols, Nepal
October 1966- Gandaki Valley, near Jomosom Nepal, with Tibetan Refugees. Note the head straps for carrying heavy loads. Most Tibetan refugees pass through Nepal to India where The 14th Dalai Lama resides.

The Gandaki River, also known as the Narayani and the Gandak, is one of the major rivers in Nepal and a left bank tributary of the Ganges in India.

It joins the Ganges near Patna just downstream of Hajipur at Sonpur (also known as Harihar Kshetra).

Hajipur

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Headquarters and largest city of Vaishali district of the state of Bihar in India.

Headquarters and largest city of Vaishali district of the state of Bihar in India.

Gandak River
Lord Vishnu with Gaja and Graah
Jami Masjid
Vishwa Shanti Stupa
Hajipur Junction
Mahatma Gandhi Setu

Patna, is only 10 km from Hajipur, with the cities separated by the Ganges river.

Hajipur lies on the north bank of the Ganga while Patna lies on the south, the Gandhi Setu bridge connects both cities.

Plan of Pataliputra, compared to present-day Patna

Pataliputra

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Plan of Pataliputra, compared to present-day Patna
Ruins of pillared hall at Kumrahar site at Pataliputra.
The Pataliputra capital, discovered at the Bulandi Bagh site. 4th-3rd c. BCE.
Mauryan remains of a wooden palissade at Bulandi Bagh site.
Mauryan remains of a wooden palisade discovered at the Bulandi Bagh site of Pataliputra.
Fa-Hien at the ruins of Ashoka's palace in Pataliputra in the 4th century CE (artist impression).
Ruins of Pataliputra at Kumhrar.
Pataliputra served as the capital of the Haryanka dynasty and the Shishunaga dynasty of Magadha.
Pataliputra served as the capital of the Nanda Empire.
Pataliputra served as the capital of the Maurya Empire.
Pataliputra served as the capital of the Shunga Empire.
Pataliputra served as the capital of the Gupta Empire.
Pataliputra served as the capital of the Pala Empire.
The Masarh lion, 3rd century BCE.
Lohanipur torso.
Portion of pillar, found in Pataliputra.
Pataliputra griffin statuette.
Winged griffin.
Pataliputra Yakshas, with Mauryan inscriptions.
Kumrahar coping stone with vines.
Pataliputra lotus motifs.
Polished pillar from Pataliputra.
Mason marks at the base of a pillar.<ref>Foreign Influence on Ancient India, de Krishna Chandra Sagar p.41</ref>
Charriot wheel, Bulandi Bagh, Mauryan period.
Bulandi Bagh female statuette, Sunga period.
Buddhist railing, Sunga period.

Pataliputra (IAST: ), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Ajatashatru in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.

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Megasthenes

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Ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.

Ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.

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He spent time at the court of Sibyrtius, who was a satrap of Arachosia under Antigonus I and then Seleucus I. Megasthenes was then an ambassador for Seleucid king Seleucus I Nicator and to the court of the Mauryan King Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra (modern Patna).

He must have then traveled to Pataliputra along the Yamuna and the Ganga rivers.

Son River

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Perennial river located in central India.

Perennial river located in central India.

Sonemuda, origin of Sone River
Babur crossing the Son River.
Boatmen on the Son River, Umaria district, MP
Son River, from Son Nagar railway station, Aurangabad district, Bihar
Son River, from Son Nagar railway station, Aurangabad district, Bihar

It originates near Amarkantak Hill in Annupur district of Madhya Pradesh and finally merges with the Ganges River near Patna in Bihar.

Sone river is the second-largest southern tributary of the Ganges' after Yamuna River.

Munger Fort

Munger

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Twin city and a Municipal Corporation situated in the Indian state of Bihar.

Twin city and a Municipal Corporation situated in the Indian state of Bihar.

Munger Fort
Kastaharni Ghat
Munger Railway Station

Munger is situated about 180km from east of capital city Patna, about 480km west of Eastern India's largest city kolkata and 1200km from country's capital New Delhi.

The twin city comprises Munger and Jamalpur situated on the southern bank of the river Ganges.

Chhapra

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City and headquarters of the Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar.

City and headquarters of the Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar.

It is situated near the junction of the Ghaghara River and the Ganges River.

Sir Khan Bahadur Khuda Bakhsh 1842–1908, Indian lawyer, Judge, Historian and founder of Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library, Patna