A report on Ganges and Vindhya Range

Vindhya range seen from Mandav, Madhya Pradesh
Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
Map of prominent mountain ranges in India, showing Vindhyas in central India
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
The Vindhyas are seen as the southern boundary of Aryavarta in this map. Note that historically, the term "Vindhyas" covered the Satpura range that lies to the south of Narmada.
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
A map of the "Vindhyan Series" from Geological Survey of India (1871)
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.
The Ganges at Sultanganj.

According to the various definitions mentioned in the older texts, the Vindhyas extend up to Godavari in the south and Ganges in the north.

- Vindhya Range

The Ganges basin ranges from the Himalaya and the Transhimalaya in the north, to the northern slopes of the Vindhya range in the south, from the eastern slopes of the Aravalli in the west to the Chota Nagpur plateau and the Sunderbans delta in the east.

- Ganges

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Overall

Indo-Gangetic Plain

Indo-Gangetic Plain

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172 e6acre fertile plain encompassing northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, including most of northern and eastern India, around half of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.

172 e6acre fertile plain encompassing northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, including most of northern and eastern India, around half of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.

Indo-Gangetic Plain
Clusters of yellow lights on the Indo-Gangetic Plain reveal numerous cities large and small in this photograph of northern India and northern Pakistan, seen from the northwest. The orange line is the India–Pakistan border.
A part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain over Northern, Central and Eastern India as well as its neighbouring countries

The region is named after the Indus and the Ganges rivers and encompasses a number of large urban areas.

According to Manusmṛti (2.22), 'Aryavarta' is "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern Sea (Bay of Bengal) to the Western Sea (Arabian Sea)".

Uttar Pradesh

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State in northern India.

State in northern India.

A part of the Gangetic Plain
Monsoon clouds over Indirapuram
Divisions of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh is the largest subdivion by population in the world. The red area has a smaller population than Uttar Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha), the lower house of the bicameral legislature.
Logo of Uttar Pradesh Police, the largest police force in the world.
Sown saplings of rice in a paddy; located in the rich fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain, agriculture is the largest employment generator in the state.
IT premise in Noida, which is known for infrastructure and services, as well as high-end housing complexes.
A section of Delhi–Noida Direct Flyway
Indian field hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand
Ekana Cricket Stadium in Lucknow.
JRHU is the world's first school for the handicapped
Central Drug Research Institute, an autonomous multidisciplinary research institute
Kumbh Mela 2013 at Sangam, Allahabad
The battle of Kurukshetra, folio from the Mahabharata
Kathak dancer performing
Devotees inside Krishna temple during Lathmaar Holi
Uttar Pradeshi thali with naan, sultani dal, raita, and shahi paneer
Paan (betel leaves) being served with silver foil
Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, Sravasti
A hybrid nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) showing nectar spur, found mainly in Hardoi district
View of the Terai region
The threatened Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian found in the Ganges River

The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and its tributary Yamuna, meet at the Triveni Sangam in Prayagraj, a Hindu pilgrimage site.

The smaller Vindhya Range and plateau region are in the south.

India

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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India.

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.

Son River

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Perennial river located in central India.

Perennial river located in central India.

Sonemuda, origin of Sone River
Babur crossing the Son River.
Boatmen on the Son River, Umaria district, MP
Son River, from Son Nagar railway station, Aurangabad district, Bihar
Son River, from Son Nagar railway station, Aurangabad district, Bihar

Sone river is the second-largest southern tributary of the Ganges' after Yamuna River.

Geologically, the lower valley of the Son is an extension of the Narmada Valley, and the Kaimur Range an extension of the Vindhya Range.

Kaimur Range

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Kaimur Range (also spelt Kymore) is the eastern portion of the Vindhya Range, about 483 km long, extending from around Katangi in Jabalpur district of Madhya Pradesh to around Sasaram in Rohtas district of Bihar.

A Neolithic settlement was also discovered in the thick of the alluvium, over the bank of the Ganges at Chirand.