Bhagirathi River at Gangotri.
Devprayag, confluence of Alaknanda (right) and Bhagirathi (left), and beginning of the Ganges proper.
The Himalayan headwaters of the Ganges River in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, India.
The Gandhi Setu Bridge across the Ganges in Patna, Bihar
A sailboat on the main distributory of the Ganges in Bangladesh, the Padma river.
The Ganges delta in a 2020 satellite image.
A 1908 map showing the course of the Ganges and its tributaries.
The River Ganges at Kolkata, with Howrah Bridge in the background
Lower Ganges in Lakshmipur, Bangladesh
Hardinge Bridge, Bangladesh, crosses the Ganges-Padma River. It is one of the key sites for measuring streamflow and discharge on the lower Ganges.
Chromolithograph, Indian woman floating lamps on the Ganges, by William Simpson, 1867
Descent of Ganga, painting by Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910
Preparations for cremations on the banks of the Ganges in Varanasi], 1903. The dead are being bathed, wrapped in cloth, and covered with wood. The photograph has a caption, "Who dies in the waters of the Ganges obtains heaven."]
Women and children at a bathing ghat on the Ganges in Banares (Varanasi), 1885.
Shiva, as Gangadhara, bearing the Descent of the Ganges, as the goddess Parvati, the sage Bhagiratha, and the bull Nandi look on (circa 1740).
A procession of Akharas marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges River. Kumbh Mela at Allahabad, 2001.
Head works of the Ganges canal in Haridwar (1860). Photograph by Samuel Bourne.
The Ganges Canal highlighted in red stretching between its headworks off the Ganges River in Haridwar and its confluences with the Jumna (Yamuna) River in Etawah and with the Ganges in Cawnpore (now Kanpur).
A girl selling plastic containers in Haridwar for carrying Ganges water.
Ganges from Space
Lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus)
The catla (Catla catla) is one of the Indian carp species that support major fisheries in the Ganges
The threatened gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is a large fish-eating crocodilian that is harmless to humans
The Gangetic dolphin in a sketch by Whymper and P. Smit, 1894.
People bathing and washing clothes in the Ganges in Varanasi.

Trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through India and Bangladesh.

- Ganges

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Padma River

Major river in Bangladesh.

Major river in Bangladesh.

A map showing the major rivers that flow into the Bay of Bengal, including Padma.
Padma River and boats (1860)
Hardinge Bridge in Bangladesh
Sunset from Padma River
A view of Padma river in summer near Rajshahi
Sunset from the river Padma during monsoon, Rajpara, Rajshahi
Sky over river padma

It is the main distributary of the Ganges, flowing generally southeast for 120 km to its confluence with the Meghna River near the Bay of Bengal.

Haridwar Kumbh Mela in 2010

Kumbh Mela

Major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism.

Major pilgrimage and festival in Hinduism.

Haridwar Kumbh Mela in 2010
A 2019 stamp dedicated to Kumbh Mela
A pot (Kumbh) containing Amrita was one of the creative product of the Samudra manthan legend in ancient Hindu texts.
Large crowds at the Ganga (Ganges) on a major bathing day in the 2019 Kumbh Mela
The first page of Prayag Snana Vidhi manuscript (Sanskrit, Devanagari script). It describes methods to complete a bathing pilgrimage at Prayag. The manuscript (1674 CE) has a colophon, which states "Copied by Sarvottama, son of Vishvanatha Bhatta, Samvat 1752".
Hindu pilgrims heading to the Kumbh Mela site
The Ashoka pillar at Allahabad (photo c. 1900) contains many inscriptions since the 3rd-century BCE. Sometime about 1575 CE, Birbal of Akbar's era added an inscription that mentions the "Magh mela at Prayag Tirth Raj".
Haridwar Kumbh Mela by the English painter J. M. W. Turner. Steel engraving, c. 1850s.
A cultural program pandal at Prayag Kumbh Mela (2019)
Kumbh Mela – a dip in the waters is one of the key rituals.
Cooking at Kumbh Mela in 2019.
Triveni Sangam during Allahabad Kumbh Mela, c. 2013.
Kumbh Mela at Haridwar.
Nashik Pilgrims gather for the Shahi Snan (royal bath) in Ramkund in Dakshin Ganga River, c. 1991.
Naga sadhu at a Kumbh procession (1998).
Water dip at the Kumbh festival
A cultural event at a Kumbh Mela pandal
A sadhu at Maha Kumbh, 2013.

It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years, to celebrate every revolution Brihaspati (Jupiter) completes, at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: Allahabad (Ganges-Yamuna-Sarasvati rivers confluence), Haridwar (Ganges), Nashik (Godavari), and Ujjain (Shipra).


Ancient built environment.

Ancient built environment.

The walls of the 16th-century Purana Qila built on a mound whose topography is thought to match the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit-epic Mahabharata, though excavations in the vicinity have yielded no evidence of construction.
At 72.5 m, the Qutb Minar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi, was completed during the reign of Sultan Illtutmish in the 13th century; although its style has some similarities with the Jarkurgan minaret, it is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid minarets of Central Asia
Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years.
Six stamps issued by the Government of British India to mark the inauguration of New Delhi in February 1931
Khan Market in New Delhi, now a high-end shopping district, was established in 1951 to help refugees of the Partition of India, especially those from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It honours Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, Chief Minister of NWFP during the Partition.
Aerial view of Delhi in April 2016 with river Yamuna in top-right.
A dense toxic smog in New Delhi blocks out the sun. In November 2017, Delhi's chief minister described the city as a "gas chamber".
Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme.
Districts of Delhi
Municipalities of Delhi
Connaught Place in New Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region.
The Khari Baoli market in Old Delhi is one of the oldest and busiest in the city.
Indira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia. Shown here is the immigration counter in Terminal 3.
The Delhi Transport Corporation operates three types of compressed natural gas buses, the world's largest fleet. The red- and green-roofed buses seen in the picture have low floors whereas the orange buses have standard height. The elevated Delhi metro is seen above in Azadpur.
The cycle rickshaw and the auto rickshaw are commonly used in Delhi for travelling short distances.
A platform of the New Delhi railway station shows a passenger train and freight which awaits pick up or transportation to other destinations. The pedestrian bridge overhead connects the platforms.
Delhi Metro is widely used Delhi- NCR.
Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially
More than a quarter of the immigrants in Delhi are from Bihar and neighboring states. Chhath, a festival of rural Bihar is now popular in Delhi.
On Basant Panchmi eve, qawwali singers wearing yellow headbands gather at the dargah of Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya to sing verses from Amir Khusrau.
The kitchen of Karim's, Old Delhi, a historic restaurant located near Jama Masjid. 
 Established in 1913, the restaurant has been described as "arguably the city's most famous culinary destination".
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi
Indian athletes marching into the National Stadium during the opening ceremony of the 1951 Asian Games.
The 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
alt=The Birla temple in Delhi with its towers.|Birla Mandir, Delhi, a Hindu temple, was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1933
The Jama Masjid was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1650 and 1656
The prayer hall of Sikh Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, Old Delhi which dates to 1783

At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers.


State in eastern India.

State in eastern India.

Khakparta Temple, a 9th-century Shiva temple in Lohardaga
Santhal rebellion against Zamindari system during British Company Raj in 1855
Jawaharlal Nehru, industrialist Jamnalal Bajaj, Sarojini Naidu, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, and Maulana Azad at the 1940 Ramgarh session of the Indian National Congress.
Congress General Secretary Mr. Ram Ratan Ram's letter to PM Mr. Rajiv Gandhi on the issue of the state of Jharkhand
Physical map of Jharkhand
Sun Temple at Ranchi; Hinduism is the largest religion in the state
Open-cast Coal Mining in Dhanbad
A Jharkhand Rice Plate
Chhau Dancers in Jharkhand village
Sohrai wall painting jharkhand
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi
Jagannath temple at Ranchi built by king Ani Nath Shahdeo
Maluti temples in Dumka
Palamu Forts
Navratangarh fort
Palash flowers, bright red, pepper the skyline in Jharkhand during fall, also known as forest fire
A crocodile at Muta crocodile breeding centre at Ormanjhi, Ranchi
A Female Indian Elephant at Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary in Jharkhand
Karam festival in Jharkhand
Chhath Puja in Jharkhand
Durga Puja in Jharkhand
Manasa Puja in Jharkhand
Ranchi Airport (IXR)
National Highway 33 near Ramgarh Cantonment
View from the Sahibganj Railway Station
Aerial View of Keenan Stadium in Jamshedpur
JRD Tata Sports Complex
thumb|The ancient Vaidyanath Jyotirlinga Temple in Deoghar
thumb|Jain temple at Samet Shikharji, the place from where twenty Tirthankars attained nirvana
thumb|Jonha Falls
Netarhat hill station

Ganga River: The holy river Ganga passes through the north-eastern district of Sahebganj. Cities on the banks of Ganga river in Jharkhand: Sahebganj, Pakur


Town and a Nagar Panchayat in Uttarkashi district in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Town and a Nagar Panchayat in Uttarkashi district in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Bhagirathi River and Himalayas in Gangotri, Uttarakhand
Gaumukh, source of the Ganges above Gangotri
Brahma Kamal Saussurea obvallata.<ref>Brahma Kamal</ref>

It is a Hindu pilgrim town on the banks of the river Bhagirathi – the origin of the river Ganges.

Bhagirathi River

The turbulent Bhagirathi as it enters Devprayag.
The Bhagirathi (foreground) on its way to meet the sediment-laden Alaknanda, and to flow on as the Ganges.
Another view of the confluence at Devprayag.
Tehri Dam, the 5th tallest dam in the world

The Bhāgīrathī (Pron: /ˌbʌgɪˈɹɑːθɪ/) is a turbulent Himalayan river in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and one of the two headstreams of the Ganges, the major river of Northern India and the holy river of Hinduism.

Indus River

Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
Indus at Skardu
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan

Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time.

Godavari River

Godavari river basin.
Godavari River delta extending into the Bay of Bengal (upper river in image).
Bhadrachalam Temple during 2005 floods
Road Bridge over Godavari River at Bhadrachalam
Gautami personified with Gautama.
Godavari Statue at Gangadwar, worshiped as origin of Godavari, Triambak
Goddess Godavari
Sculpture depicting govu vatsa and gowthama legend about birth of Godavari River
Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy Temple
Antarvedi temple
Sunset view of Godavari River and bridge from Rajahmundry
Scenic View of Araku Valley in Andhra Pradesh
Havelock Bridge on the left and Godavari Arch Bridge on the right
Upper Indiravati power house
Generalized Geological Map of Godavari Drainage Basin
Dried up Godavari exposing flood basalt river bed as seen from the back of Changdev temple in Puntamba

The Godavari (IAST: Godāvarī [ɡod̪aːʋəɾiː]) is India's second longest river after the Ganga and third largest in India, drains about 10% of India's total geographical area.


Perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar.

Perennial trans-boundary river originating on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Manasarovar.

Source of Karnali River
Ghaghara River in Faizabad is also known as Sarayu river
Lake Manasarovar in Tibet near the source of the Karnali River
Ghaghra river in Sitapur
Karnali River in Humla, Nepal
Karnali River in Nepal
Fish from Karnali River on sale in a shop at Chisapani, Kailali, Nepal
Gangetic dolphin
Cable-stayed bridge over the Karnali River in Chisapani, western Nepal

Together they form the Ghaghara River, a major left bank tributary of the Ganges.

Vindhya range seen from Mandav, Madhya Pradesh

Vindhya Range

Complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.

Complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.

Vindhya range seen from Mandav, Madhya Pradesh
Map of prominent mountain ranges in India, showing Vindhyas in central India
The Vindhyas are seen as the southern boundary of Aryavarta in this map. Note that historically, the term "Vindhyas" covered the Satpura range that lies to the south of Narmada.
A map of the "Vindhyan Series" from Geological Survey of India (1871)

According to the various definitions mentioned in the older texts, the Vindhyas extend up to Godavari in the south and Ganges in the north.