A report on QinghaiGansu and Xinjiang

The ruins of a Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, the eastern edge of the Silk Road
Dzungaria (Red) and the Tarim Basin or Altishahr (Blue)
The Dongguan Mosque in Qinghai
Xindian culture era jar with two lug handles uncovered in Gansu, dating to around 1,000 BC
Northern Xinjiang (Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression (Turpan Prefecture and Hami Prefecture) (Red) and Altishahr/the Tarim Basin (Blue)
Oil well in Tsaidam (Qaidam), Qinghai
The ruins of a gate at Yumen Pass, built during the Jin dynasty (266–420)
Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin (Altishahr) by the Tien Shan Mountains
View of the Qinghai Lake.
Jiayuguan Fort
Map of Han Dynasty in 2 CE. Light blue is the Tarim Basin protectorate.
China National Highway 109 in Qinghai
Danxia landform in Zhangye
Old Uyghur/Yugur art from the Bezeklik murals
The Khoshut Khanate (1642–1717) based in the Tibetan Plateau
Gates of the provincial government complex in Lanzhou
The Tarim Basin in the 3rd century AD
Chiang Kai-shek, leader of Nationalist China (right), meets with the Muslim generals Ma Bufang (second from left), and Ma Buqing (first from left) in Xining, Qinghai, in August 1942
Farmland in Linxia
A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel. Sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty
Nyenpo Yurtse, Jigzhi County, Qinghai
Shopping mall in Lanzhou
Mongol states from the 14th to the 17th centuries: the Northern Yuan dynasty, Four Oirat, Moghulistan and Kara Del
Riyue Mountain in Qinghai
Lanzhou city
The Dzungar–Qing Wars, between the Qing Dynasty and the Dzungar Khanate
A Taoist temple dedicated to Jiutian Xuannü on Mount Fenghuang, in Lunmalong village, Duoba, Xining
A painting of the Buddhist Manjushri, from the Yulin Caves of Gansu, Tangut-led Western Xia dynasty (1038–1227 AD)
The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756, between the Manchu and Oirat armies
A Buddhist temple on Riyue Mountain, in Huangyuan County, Xining
These rammed earth ruins of a granary in Hecang Fortress, located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Western-Han-era Yumen Pass, were built during the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and significantly rebuilt during the Western Jin (280–316 AD).
The Qing Empire ca. 1820
Mosques and Chinese folk temples characterising the skyline of Huangyuan County
A terracotta warrior from Gansu, with traces of polychrome and gold, from the Tang dynasty (618–907)
Scene from the 1828 Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr
Rongwo Tibetan Buddhist Monastery in Tongren County
Maijishan Grottoes
Yakub Beg, ruler of Yettishar
Great Mosque of Duoba, Xining
Fertile fields near Wuwei
19th-century Khotan Uyghurs in Yettishar
Crescent Lake, Dunhuang
Kuomintang in Xinjiang, 1942
Qilian Mountains southeast of Jiuquan
Governor Sheng Shicai ruled from 1933 to 1944.
Terrace farms near Tianshui
The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic encompassed Xinjiang's Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts.
Grasslands in Min County
Close to Karakoram Highway in Xinjiang.
Wetland by the Yellow River, Maqu County
Pamir Mountains and Muztagh Ata.
Main hall of a Chan temple of Lanzhou.
Taklamakan Desert
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (Idol) of Lanzhou.
Tianchi Lake
Nanhua Amituo Fo Temple of Chinese Buddhism seen on a hill above the roofs of the Yu Baba Gongbei, a Sufi shrine.
Black Irtysh river in Burqin County is a famous spot for sightseeing.
Labrang Monastery of Tibetan Buddhism in Gannan.
Kanas Lake
Village temple in Linxia County.
Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang
Linxia Dongguan Mosque
Statue of Mao Zedong in Kashgar
Lanzhou Xiguan Mosque
Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang Government between 2007 and 2015
The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)
Ürümqi is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.
Wind farm in Xinjiang
Sunday market in Khotan
Ürümqi Diwopu International Airport
Karakorum highway
This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.
"Heroic Gesture of Bodhisattvathe Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco-Buddhist art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang
Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, Eastern Tarim Basin
A mosque in Ürümqi
People engaging in snow sports by a statue of bodhisattva Guanyin in Wujiaqu
Christian Church in Hami
Catholic Church in Urumqi
Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi
Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture
Emin Minaret
Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China
Erkin Tuniyaz, the incumbent Chairman of the Xinjiang Government

The seventh-largest administrative district by area at 453700 km2, Gansu lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus and borders Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province), Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south and Shaanxi to the east.

- Gansu

Qinghai borders Gansu on the northeast, Xinjiang on the northwest, Sichuan on the southeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region on the southwest.

- Qinghai

Xinjiang also borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai.

- Xinjiang

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A halal meat store sign in Hankou, ca. 1934–1935.

Hui people

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East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Chinese-speaking adherents of Islam.

East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Chinese-speaking adherents of Islam.

A halal meat store sign in Hankou, ca. 1934–1935.
Halal (清真) restaurants offering Northwestern beef lamian can be found throughout the country
The minaret of the Dungan mosque in Karakol, Kyrgyzstan
Dungan mosque in Karakol, Kyrgyzstan
Muslim restaurant in Kunming, Yunnan
A halal (清真) shower house in Linxia City
A fence in Niujie with art depicting the minority ethnicities in China, including the Hui (回族)
Hui people praying in the Dongguan Mosque, Xining
An elderly Hui man.
Muslim restaurant in Xi'an
The Lhasa Great Mosque in Tibet
The Sufi mausoleum (gongbei) of Ma Laichi in Linxia City, China.
The Xianxian Mosque in Guangzhou
An ethnic Hui family celebrating Eid ul-Fitr in Ningxia.
Hui men praying in a mosque
Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Kuomintang with Muslim General Ma Fushou.
Ma Jiyuan, a Muslim General, at his wedding with Kuomintang flag.
Ma Bufang and Hui children in Egypt.
Ma Fuxiang
Chinese Generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum at the Temple of the Azure Clouds in Beijing after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Wen Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and Bai Chongxi. (6 July 1928)
Ma Hetian

Western missionaries who entered Gansu and Shaanxi after the 18th century, on the other hand, considered the Hui in the north-western provinces an ethnic group between the Turkic, Han and Arab peoples.

The study also showed that there is a close genetic affinity among these ethnic minorities in Northwest China (including Uyghurs, Huis, Dongxiangs, Bonans, Yugurs and Salars) and that these cluster closely with other East Asian people, especially in Xinjiang, followed by Mongolic, and Tungusic speakers, indicating the probability of a shared recent common ancestor of "Altaic speakers".

Joseph Fletcher cited Turkic and Persian manuscripts related to the preaching of the 17th century Kashgarian Sufi master Muhammad Yūsuf (or, possibly, his son Afaq Khoja) inside the Ming Empire (in today's Gansu and/or Qinghai), where the preacher allegedly converted ulamā-yi Tunganiyyāh (i.e., "Dungan ulema") into Sufism.

Yaqub Beg

Dungan Revolt (1862–1877)

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War fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor (r.

War fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor (r.

Yaqub Beg
The map of Dungan Revolt
Battle of the Wei River, painting of the Imperial Qing Court.
Zuo Zongtang in military garment with long court beads, as the Governor-General of Shaanxi and Gansu in Lanzhou in 1875
Quarters for Qing troops in Gansu, 1875.
Chinese artillery on a three-wheeled cart
Town of Anxi in the Hexi Corridor, still in ruins in 1875
Pro-Qing forces in Gansu in 1875
Yakub Beg's Dungan and Han Chinese taifurchi (gunners) take part in shooting exercises.
Remnants of the citadel near Barkul in 1875. In 1865, rebels from Kucha led by Ishaq Khwaja attacked the fort.
A mosque official in Hami, 1875.
Ruins of the Theater in Chuguchak, painting by Vereshchagin (1869–70)
Yakub Beg's "Andijani" 'taifukchi' (gunners)--misspelled on the picture as "taifurchi"

However, this article refers specifically to two waves of uprising by various Chinese Muslims, mostly Hui people, in Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces in the first wave, and then in Xinjiang in the second wave, between 1862 and 1877.

When the Qing forces under Zuo Zongtang put down the Dungan Revolt, the sons of Muslim Hui and Salar rebel leaders like Ma Benyuan (马本源) and Ma Guiyuan (马桂源) in Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai were castrated by the Qing Imperial Household Department once they became 11 years old and were sent to work as eunuch slaves for Qing garrisons in Xinjiang and the wives of the rebel leaders were also enslaved.

Northwest China

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Northwest China is a statistical region of China which includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai.

Salar people in Xi'an celebrating Sabantuy

Salar people

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Oghuz language.

Oghuz language.

Salar people in Xi'an celebrating Sabantuy
Salar Muslim settlement, outside of Jishi Town, Xunhua, Qinghai, 1932.
A Salar Muslim with a captured fox at the market, Labrang, Xiahe County, Gansu, 1934.
Most Salars live in Qinghai province
Copy of the Quran brought by Salar Muslims from Samarkand in 1371. (In 2 volumes)
A Salar Muslim, Cao Tan Ba (Dam of Grass Shoal) Village, Xunhua, Qinghai, 1933
A Salar Muslim manager in Jishi Town, Xunhua, Qinghai, 1932

The Salar's live mostly in the Qinghai-Gansu border region, on both sides of the Yellow River, namely in Xunhua Salar Autonomous County, Hualong Hui Autonomous County of Qinghai and the adjacent Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County of Gansu and in some parts of Henan and Shanxi.

There are also Salars in Northern Xinjiang (in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture).

Lanzhou and the Zhongshan Bridge under construction in 1909 taken by Robert Sterling Clark


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Lanzhou and the Zhongshan Bridge under construction in 1909 taken by Robert Sterling Clark
The West Gate of the old city wall in 1875. It has been demolished, although its busy neighborhood still bears its name.
Viceroy of Shaan-Gan and Baron C. G. E. Mannerheim in Lanzhou, 1908
View on Zhongshan Bridge from Baita Mountain Park
Xiguan Mosque after a Friday prayer
Gansu Provincial Museum
Lanzhou Center commercial complex
Headquarters of UNIDO-ISEC
Lanzhou Railway Station
Lanzhou West Railway Station
Lanzhou BRT
Lanzhou beef noodles
Lanzhou University

Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China.

Later it fell into the hands of the Western Xia dynasty (which flourished in Qinghai from the 11th to 13th century) and was subsequently absorbed by the Song dynasty (960–1126) in 1081.

This highway remained the primary traffic route of northwestern China until the completion of the railway from Lanzhou to Ürümqi, Xinjiang.

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700

Tang dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907 AD, with an interregnum between 690 and 705.

Imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907 AD, with an interregnum between 690 and 705.

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700
Portrait painting of Emperor Gaozu (born Li Yuan, 566–635), the first Tang Emperor.
Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia. She first ruled through her husband and sons for almost three decades, then became emperor herself and ruled in her own right for another fifteen years.
Map of An Lushan Rebellion
The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m high; begun in 713, completed in 803
Nanchan Temple (Wutai), built during the late 8th century
Xumi Pagoda, built in 636
A late Tang mural commemorating the victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetans in 848 AD, from Mogao cave 156
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang wearing the robes and hat of a scholar
Tang tomb figure of an official dressed in Hanfu, with a tall hat, wide-sleeved belted outer garment, and rectangular "kerchief" in front. A white inner gown hangs over his square shoes. He holds a tablet to his chest, a report to his superiors.
Civil service exam candidates gather around the wall where results had been posted. Artwork by Qiu Ying.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang giving audience to Zhang Guo, by Ren Renfa (1254–1327)
Emperor Taizong (r. 626–649) receives Gar Tongtsen Yülsung, ambassador of the Tibetan Empire, at his court; later copy of an original painted in 641 by Yan Liben (600–673)
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Chang-le (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, i.e. 644 CE
A 10th-century mural painting in the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang showing monastic architecture from Mount Wutai, Tang dynasty; Japanese architecture of this period was influenced by Tang Chinese architecture
Tomb figure of mounted warrior similar to the one unearthed from the tomb of Crown Prince Li Chongrun
Tomb guardian (wushi yong), early 8th century
A bas relief of a soldier and the emperor's horse, Autumn Dew, with elaborate saddle and stirrups, designed by Yan Liben, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong c. 650
Illustration of Byzantine embassy to Tang Taizong 643 CE
Tang dynasty Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寳) coin, first minted in 621 in Chang'an, a model for the Japanese 8th-century Wadōkaichin
Sancai glazed horse tomb figure
Tomb figure of a horse with a carefully sculpted saddle, decorated with leather straps and ornamental fastenings featuring eight-petalled flowers and apricot leaves.
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.
Tomb Figure of a Sogdian merchant, 7th-century
A mural depicting a corner tower, most likely one of Chang'an, from the tomb of Prince Yide (d. 701) at the Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706
Map of Chang'an in Tang Dynasty
The bronze Jingyun Bell cast 711, height 247 cm high, weight 6,500 kg, now in the Xi'an Bell Tower
A Tang dynasty era copy of the preface to the Lantingji Xu poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion Gathering, originally attributed to Wang Xizhi (303–361 AD) of the Jin dynasty
A poem by Li Bai (701–762 AD), the only surviving example of Li Bai's calligraphy, housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
Calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele
A Tang dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva
An 8th-century silk wall scroll from Dunhuang, showing the paradise of Amitabha
A timber hall built in 857, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple of Mount Wutai, Shanxi
A Tang sancai-glazed carved relief showing horseback riders playing polo
A late Tang or early Five Dynasties era silk painting on a banner depicting Guanyin and a female attendant in silk robes, from the Dunhuang caves, now in the British Museum
Palace ladies in a garden from a mural of Prince Li Xian's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706
Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs
A Tang sancai-glazed lobed dish with incised decorations, 8th century
Tomb figure of a lady attendant, 7th- to 8th-century; during the Tang era, female hosts prepared feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.
A rounded "offering plate" with design in "three colors" (sancai) glaze, 8th-century
A page of Lu Yu's The Classic of Tea
A square bronze mirror with a phoenix motif of gold and silver inlaid with lacquer, 8th-century
The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, is the world's first widely printed book to include a specific date of printing.
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. c. 700. The whole set of star maps contains over 1,300 stars.
"Great Tang" (Dà Táng) in seal characters.
A Tang Dynasty sancai statuette of Sogdian musicians riding on a Bactrian camel, 723 AD, Xi'an.

However, the Tang did manage to restore at least indirect control over former Tang territories as far west as the Hexi Corridor and Dunhuang in Gansu.

In fact, it was during this rebellion that the Tang withdrew its western garrisons stationed in what is now Gansu and Qinghai, which the Tibetans then occupied along with the territory of what is now Xinjiang.

A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" (黄石市区) rather than simply "Huangshi" (黄石). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located already within Huangshi prefectural level city (immediately upon entering its Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still 100 km from the Huangshi main urban area.

Prefecture-level city

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Administrative division of the People's Republic of China , ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure.

Administrative division of the People's Republic of China , ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure.

A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" (黄石市区) rather than simply "Huangshi" (黄石). This is a useful distinction, because the sign is located already within Huangshi prefectural level city (immediately upon entering its Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still 100 km from the Huangshi main urban area.

Of the 22 provinces and 5 autonomous regions of the PRC, only 9 provinces (Yunnan, Guizhou, Qinghai, Heilongjiang, Sichuan, Gansu, Jilin, Hubei, Hunan) and 3 autonomous regions (Xinjiang, Tibet, Inner Mongolia) have at least one or more second level or prefectural level divisions that are not prefectural level cities.