Gascony

GasconGasconsGascogneDuchy of GasconyGascon-bornGasconicAquitaniaBearn GascogneCounty of Gasconyduke of Gascony
Gascony (Gascogne ; Gascon: Gasconha ; Gaskoinia) is a province of southwestern France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.wikipedia
881 Related Articles

Gascon language

GasconGascon dialectGascon-Aranese dialect
Gascony (Gascogne ; Gascon: Gasconha ; Gaskoinia) is a province of southwestern France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
It is mostly spoken in Gascony and Béarn in southwestern France (in parts of the following French départements: Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, Lot-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne, and Ariège) and in the Aran Valley of Catalonia.

Landes (department)

LandesLandes departmentdepartment of Landes
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).
It was created from parts of the provinces of Guyenne and Gascony.

Regions of France

regionrégionadministrative region
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).

Pyrénées-Atlantiques

Basses-PyrénéesPyrénées AtlantiquesPyrenees-Atlantiques
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).
It was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as the Béarn-Navarre (still, at least nominally, Kingdom of Navarre), i.e. the Basques provinces of Basse-Navarre, Labourd, Bayonne (detached a few years before from Labourd), and Soule, and Béarn.

Gironde

Gironde estuary33Gironde department
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).
It was created from parts of the former provinces of Guyenne and Gascony.

Hautes-Pyrénées

Hautes-PyreneesHautes Pyrenees(department 65)
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).
Historically the area broadly covered by the département was known as Bigorre, a territory at times independent but later part of Gascony province.

Gers

Department of Gers3232 - Gers
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).
It was created from parts of the former provinces of Guyenne and Gascony.

Basques

BasqueBasque peopleBasque culture
Gascony was historically inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque.
By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile, Pamplona and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorça (later Kingdom of Aragon), and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries.

Lot-et-Garonne

Lot et Garonne4747 - Lot-et-Garonne
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).
It was created from part of the province of Guyenne and Gascony; originally the territory of the ancient county of Agenais constituted nearly the whole.

Provinces of France

former provinceprovinceprovince of France
Gascony (Gascogne ; Gascon: Gasconha ; Gaskoinia) is a province of southwestern France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.

Aquitanian language

AquitanianAquitanianslanguage
In pre-Roman times, the inhabitants of Gascony were the Aquitanians (Aquitani), who spoke a non-Indo-European language related to modern Basque.
The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.

The Three Musketeers

Three MusketeersnovelLes trois mousquetaires
Gascony is the land of d'Artagnan, who inspired Alexandre Dumas's character d'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers, as well as the land of Cyrano de Bergerac, who inspired the play of the same name by Edmond Rostand.
In 1625 France, d'Artagnan (a poor young nobleman) leaves his family in Gascony and travels to Paris to join the Musketeers of the Guard.

Charles de Batz de Castelmore d'Artagnan

D'ArtagnanCharles de Batz-Castelmore d'ArtagnanComte d'Artagnan
Gascony is the land of d'Artagnan, who inspired Alexandre Dumas's character d'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers, as well as the land of Cyrano de Bergerac, who inspired the play of the same name by Edmond Rostand.
Alexandre Dumas in turn used Sandras' novel as the main source for his d'Artagnan Romances (The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After and The Vicomte de Bragelonne), which cover d'Artagnan's career from his humble beginnings in Gascony to his death at Maastricht.

Occitanie

OccitaniaOccitanie regionLanguedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées
It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne).
The new administrative region includes provinces and territories of diverse cultural and historical origin: Languedoc (High and Low Languedoc), Països Catalans (Roussillon, Cerdanya, Vallespir, Conflent, Capcir), the County of Foix, and the eastern parts of what was formerly Gascony (Armagnac, Comminges, Couserans, Bigorre, Condomois, Nébouzan, Rivière-Verdun), and Guiana (Carcin, Roergue).

Basque language

BasqueEuskaraEuskera
Gascony was historically inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque.
The change of to occurred historically only in a limited area (Gascony and Old Castile) that corresponds almost exactly to areas where heavy Basque bilingualism is assumed, and as a result has been widely postulated (and equally strongly disputed).

Eleanor of Castile

Queen EleanorEleanorEleanor, Countess of Ponthieu
Henry then himself went to Gascony, pursuing a policy of conciliation; he arranged the marriage between Edward, his 14-year-old son, and Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Alfonso X.
Eleanor of Castile (1241 – 28 November 1290) was an English queen consort, the first wife of Edward I, whom she married as part of a political deal to affirm English sovereignty over Gascony.

Henry III of England

Henry IIIKing Henry IIIKing Henry III of England
Henry III yielded to the outcry and instituted a formal inquiry into Simon's administration.
He planned to go on crusade to the Levant, but was prevented from doing so by rebellions in Gascony.

Francia

Frankish EmpireFrankishFrankish Kingdom
The Visigoths were defeated by the Franks in 507, and fled into Spain and Septimania.
During their reigns, Theudebert and Theuderic campaigned successfully in Gascony, where they had established the Duchy of Gascony and brought the Basques to submission (602).

Edward I of England

Edward IKing Edward IPrince Edward
Henry then himself went to Gascony, pursuing a policy of conciliation; he arranged the marriage between Edward, his 14-year-old son, and Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Alfonso X.
In 1254, English fears of a Castilian invasion of the English province of Gascony induced Edward's father to arrange a politically expedient marriage between his fifteen-year-old son and thirteen-year-old Eleanor, the half-sister of King Alfonso X of Castile.

Aquitaine

AquitanianAquitainianAquitania
His 1152 marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine allowed the future Henry II to gain control of his new wife's possessions of Aquitaine and Gascony.
Novempopulania and Gascony) within the same region.

Edward II of England

Edward IIKing Edward IIEdward, Prince of Wales
In 1324 when Edward II of England, in his capacity as Duke of Aquitaine, failed to pay homage to the French king after a dispute, Charles IV declared the duchy forfeit at the end of June 1324, and military action by the French followed.
His father was the king of England and had also inherited Gascony in south-western France, which he held as the feudal vassal of the king of France, and the Lordship of Ireland.

Battle of Castillon

CastillonBattle of CastillionFrench victory at Castillon
At the end of the Hundred Years' War, after Gascony had changed hands several times, the English were finally defeated at the Battle of Castillon on 17 July 1453; Gascony remained French from then on.
The Battle of Castillon was a battle fought on 17 July 1453 in Gascony near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne (later Castillon-la-Bataille).

Hundred Years' War

Hundred Years WarHundred Years’ WarHundred Year's War
It was agreed that Gascony should be taken back into Philip's hands, thus precipitating the Hundred Years War between England and France.
Over the centuries, English holdings in France had varied in size, at some points dwarfing even the French royal domain; by 1337, however, only Gascony was left to the English.

Isabella of France

Queen IsabellaIsabellaPrincess Isabella
Edward sent his wife Isabella, who was sister to the French king, to negotiate a settlement.
Isabella was promised in marriage by her father to Edward, the infant son of King Edward I of England, with the intention to resolve the conflicts between France and England over the latter's continental possession of Gascony and claims to Anjou, Normandy and Aquitaine.

Gaston VII, Viscount of Béarn

Gaston VII of BéarnGaston VIIGaston de Bearn
Alfonso renounced all claims to Gascony and assisted the Plantagenets against rebels such as Gaston de Bearn, who had taken control of the Pyrenees.
A powerful and independent figure in Gascony, he was the first major patron of the Order of the Faith and Peace.