# Gaspard Monge

**MongeMonge, Gaspard**

Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818 ) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry.wikipedia

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### Differential geometry

**differentialdifferential geometerdifferential geometry and topology**

Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818 ) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry.

When curves, surfaces enclosed by curves, and points on curves were found to be quantitatively, and generally, related by mathematical forms, the formal study of the nature of curves and surfaces became a field of study in its own right, with Monge's paper in 1795, and especially, with Gauss's publication of his article, titled 'Disquisitiones Generales Circa Superficies Curvas', in Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingesis Recentiores in 1827.

### École Polytechnique

**Ecole PolytechniquePolytechniqueL'Ecole Polytechnique**

During the French Revolution he served as the Minister of the Marine, and was involved in the reform of the French educational system, helping to found the École Polytechnique. He took a very active part in the measures for the establishment of the Ecole Normale (which existed only during the first four months of the year 1795), and of the school for public works, afterwards the École Polytechnique, and was at each of them professor for descriptive geometry.

The school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution, and it was once previously a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804.

### Descriptive geometry

**descriptive**

Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818 ) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry.

Gaspard Monge is usually considered the "father of descriptive geometry" due to his developments in geometric problem solving.

### École normale supérieure (Paris)

**École Normale SupérieureÉcole NormaleEcole Normale Superieure**

He took a very active part in the measures for the establishment of the Ecole Normale (which existed only during the first four months of the year 1795), and of the school for public works, afterwards the École Polytechnique, and was at each of them professor for descriptive geometry.

These courses covered all the existing sciences and humanities and were given by scholars such as: scientists Monge, Vandermonde, Daubenton, Berthollet and philosophers Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Volney were some of the teachers.

### French campaign in Egypt and Syria

**Egyptian CampaignNapoleon's invasion of 1799French invasion of Egypt**

From there Monge joined Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, taking part with Berthollet in the scientific work of the Institut d'Égypte and the Egyptian Institute of Sciences and Arts.

It was known only to Bonaparte himself, his generals Berthier and Caffarelli, and the mathematician Gaspard Monge.

### Institut d'Égypte

**Institut d'EgypteInstitut ÉgyptienEgyptian Scientific Institute**

From there Monge joined Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, taking part with Berthollet in the scientific work of the Institut d'Égypte and the Egyptian Institute of Sciences and Arts.

### List of Naval Ministers of France

**Minister of the NavyMinister of MarineNaval Minister**

He was a strong supporter of the Revolution, and in 1792, on the creation by the Legislative Assembly of an executive council, Monge accepted the office of Minister of the Marine, and held this office from 10 August 1792 to 10 April 1793, when he resigned.

### Beaune

**Beaune, FranceBeaune, Côte d'OrBeaune, Côte-d'Or**

Monge was born at Beaune, Côte-d'Or, the son of a merchant.

### Gaspard Monge's mausoleum

**mausoleum**

His remains were first interred in a mausoleum in Le Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris and later transferred to the Panthéon in Paris.

Gaspard Monge, whose remains are deposited in the burying ground in Père Lachaise Cemetery, at Paris, in a magnificent mausoleum, was professor of geometry in the École polytechnique at Paris, and with Denon accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte on his memorable expedition to Egypt; one to make drawings of the architectural antiquities and sculpture, and the other the geographical delineations of that ancient country.

### French ship Monge

**MongeFrench ship ''MongeFS Monge**

Since 4 November 1992 the Marine Nationale operate the MRIS FS Monge, named after him.

Monge (A601), named after the 18th century mathematician Gaspard Monge, is a unique missile range instrumentation ship of the French Navy dedicated to tracking and measuring rocket trajectories.

### Transportation theory (mathematics)

**transportation theorytransportation problemoptimal transport**

Monge's 1781 memoir is also the earliest known anticipation of Linear Programming type of problems, in particular of the transportation problem.

The problem was formalized by the French mathematician Gaspard Monge in 1781.

### Sénat conservateur

**senatorSenateFrench senator**

On the formation of the Sénat conservateur he was appointed a member of that body, with an ample provision and the title of count of Pelusium (Comte de Péluse), and he became the Senate conservateur's president during 1806–7.

The first Sénat conservateur included former members of the revolutionary assemblies (François de Neufchâteau, Garat, Lanjuinais), as well as scholars (Monge, Lagrange, Lacépède, Berthollet), philosophers (Cabanis), and even the explorer Bougainville and the painter Vien, member of the Institut.

### Engineering drawing

**engineering drawingsdraftingconstruction drawing**

L. T. C. Rolt, an engineer and historian of technology, credited Monge with the birth of engineering drawing.

L. T. C. Rolt's biography of Isambard Kingdom Brunel says of his father, Marc Isambard Brunel, that "It seems fairly certain that Marc's drawings of his block-making machinery [in 1799] made a contribution to British engineering technique much greater than the machines they represented. For it is safe to assume that he had mastered the art of presenting three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional plane which we now call mechanical drawing. It had been evolved by Gaspard Monge of Mezieres in 1765 but had remained a military secret until 1794 and was therefore unknown in England."

### Commission des Sciences et des Arts

**Egyptian Institute of Sciences and ArtsCommission des sciences et arts d'EgypteCommission des Sciences et Arts d'Égypte**

From there Monge joined Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, taking part with Berthollet in the scientific work of the Institut d'Égypte and the Egyptian Institute of Sciences and Arts.

### Charles Julien Brianchon

**BrianchonBrianchon, Charles JulienCharles Brianchon**

He entered into the École Polytechnique in 1804 at the age of eighteen, and studied under Monge, graduating first in his class in 1808, after which he took up a career as a lieutenant in Napoleon's artillery.

### Charles de Tinseau d'Amondans

**de Tinseau d'Amondans, Charles**

Gaspard Monge, his professor of mathematics, interested him in mathematics.

### Sylvestre François Lacroix

**LacroixSylvestre LacroixSylvestre-François Lacroix**

The next year he followed some lectures of Gaspard Monge.

### Monge array

In mathematics applied to computer science, Monge arrays, or Monge matrices, are mathematical objects named for their discoverer, the French mathematician Gaspard Monge.

### François Arago

**AragoDominique François Jean AragoFrançois Jean Dominique Arago**

As a reward for his adventurous conduct in the cause of science, he was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences, at the remarkably early age of twenty-three, and before the close of 1809 he was chosen by the council of the École Polytechnique to succeed Gaspard Monge in the chair of analytical geometry.

### List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower

**72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Towerthe 72 names on the Eiffel Tower72 people whose names are inscribed on the Eiffel Tower**

Monge's name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the base of the Eiffel Tower.

### History of the metre

**Mètre des Archivesinternational prototype metreinternational prototype meter**

Instead of the seconds pendulum method, the commission – whose members included Lagrange, Laplace, Monge and Condorcet – decided that the new measure should be equal to one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the Equator (the quadrant of the Earth's circumference), measured along the meridian passing through Paris.

### Charles Dupin

**DupinBaron Pierre Charles DupinCharles, baron Dupin**

He studied geometry with Monge at the École Polytechnique and then became a naval engineer (ENSTA).

### Monge cone

**cone**

It is named for Gaspard Monge.

### Monge's theorem

In geometry, Monge's theorem, named after Gaspard Monge, states that for any three circles in a plane, none of which is completely inside one of the others, the intersection points of each of the three pairs of external tangent lines are collinear.

### Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette

**HachetteHachette, Jean Nicolas PierreJNP Hachette**

While there he sent several papers, in which some questions of navigation were treated geometrically, to Gaspard Monge, at that time minister of marine, through whose influence he obtained an appointment in Paris.