Gastric acid

stomach acidgastric juicegastric juicesdigestive juiceaciddigestive fluidacidsaciditydigestive fluidsdigestive juices
Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl).wikipedia
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Hydrochloric acid

HClhydrochloricmuriatic acid
Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl).
It is a naturally-occurring component of the gastric acid produced in the digestive systems of most animal species, including humans.

Stomach

gastriccardiafundus
Gastric acid, gastric juice, or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium chloride (NaCl).
It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion.

Hydrogen potassium ATPase

H + /K + -ATPaseH + /K + ATPaseh(+)-k(+)-exchanging atpase
The pH of gastric acid is 1.5 to 3.5 in the human stomach lumen, the acidity being maintained by the proton pump H + /K + ATPase.
It exchanges potassium from the intestinal lumen with cytoplasmic hydronium and is the enzyme primarily responsible for the acidification of the stomach contents and the activation of the digestive enzyme pepsin (see gastric acid).

Pepsin

pepsinogenpep''sinpepsin a
The gastric chief cells of the stomach secrete enzymes for protein breakdown (inactive pepsinogen, and in infancy rennin).
Pepsin's proenzyme, pepsinogen, is released by the chief cells in the stomach wall, and upon mixing with the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice, pepsinogen activates to become pepsin.

Proton pump

proton channelproton pumpsH + -ATPase
The pH of gastric acid is 1.5 to 3.5 in the human stomach lumen, the acidity being maintained by the proton pump H + /K + ATPase.
This enzyme functions as the proton pump of the stomach, primarily responsible for the acidification of the stomach contents (see gastric acid).

Gastrin

hypergastrinemiaGASTgastrins
The parasympathetic nervous system, via the vagus nerve, and the hormone gastrin stimulate the parietal cell to produce gastric acid, both directly acting on parietal cells and indirectly, through the stimulation of the secretion of the hormone histamine from enterochromaffine-like cells (ECL). In Zollinger–Ellison syndrome and hypercalcemia, there are increased gastrin levels, leading to excess gastric acid production, which can cause gastric ulcers.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.

Gastric glands

gastric glandpyloric glandsfundic
The main constituent of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid which is produced by parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) in the gastric glands in the stomach.
The parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid–the main component of gastric acid.

Enterochromaffin-like cell

ECL cellsenterochromaffin-like cellsECL cell
The parasympathetic nervous system, via the vagus nerve, and the hormone gastrin stimulate the parietal cell to produce gastric acid, both directly acting on parietal cells and indirectly, through the stimulation of the secretion of the hormone histamine from enterochromaffine-like cells (ECL).
Enterochromaffin-like cells or ECL cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the gastric glands of the gastric mucosa beneath the epithelium, in particular in the vicinity of parietal cells, that aid in the production of gastric acid via the release of histamine.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Gastric acid production is regulated by both the autonomic nervous system and several hormones.
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is.

PH

pH levelneutralpH value
The pH of gastric acid is 1.5 to 3.5 in the human stomach lumen, the acidity being maintained by the proton pump H + /K + ATPase.

Secretin

SCTChiRhoStimprosecretin
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, and secretin all inhibit production.
Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the ductal cells of the pancreas.

Gastric chief cell

chief cellschief cells, gastricGastric chief cells
The gastric chief cells of the stomach secrete enzymes for protein breakdown (inactive pepsinogen, and in infancy rennin).
It works in conjunction with the parietal cell, which releases gastric acid, converting the pepsinogen into pepsin.

Histamine

histaminesHistaminantihistaminic
The parasympathetic nervous system, via the vagus nerve, and the hormone gastrin stimulate the parietal cell to produce gastric acid, both directly acting on parietal cells and indirectly, through the stimulation of the secretion of the hormone histamine from enterochromaffine-like cells (ECL).

Proton-pump inhibitor

proton pump inhibitorproton pump inhibitorsproton-pump inhibitors
The proton pump enzyme is the target of proton pump inhibitors, used to increase gastric pH (and hence decrease stomach acidity) in diseases that feature excess acid.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of medications whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

VIPvasoactive intestinal polypeptideVasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, cholecystokinin, and secretin all inhibit production.
In the digestive system, VIP seems to induce smooth muscle relaxation (lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, gallbladder), stimulate secretion of water into pancreatic juice and bile, and cause inhibition of gastric acid secretion and absorption from the intestinal lumen.

Zollinger–Ellison syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison syndromeZESZollinger-Ellison tumour
In Zollinger–Ellison syndrome and hypercalcemia, there are increased gastrin levels, leading to excess gastric acid production, which can cause gastric ulcers.
The tumor causes excessive production of gastric acid, which leads to the growth of gastric mucosa and proliferation of parietal and ECL cells.

H2 antagonist

H 2 receptor antagonistH2 receptor antagonistsH 2 -receptor antagonist
H 2 antagonists indirectly decrease gastric acid production.
This decreases the production of stomach acid.

Digestion

digestivedigestdigested
The role of gastric acid in digestion was established in the 1820s and 1830s by William Beaumont on Alexis St. Martin, who, as a result of an accident, had a fistula (hole) in his stomach, which allowed Beaumont to observe the process of digestion and to extract gastric acid, verifying that acid played a crucial role in digestion.
Gastric juice in the stomach starts protein digestion.

Sodium bicarbonate

baking sodabicarbonate of sodaNaHCO 3
In the duodenum, gastric acid is neutralized by sodium bicarbonate.
Its reaction with stomach acid produces salt, water, and carbon dioxide:

Peptic ulcer disease

peptic ulcerstomach ulcerulcer
In Zollinger–Ellison syndrome and hypercalcemia, there are increased gastrin levels, leading to excess gastric acid production, which can cause gastric ulcers.
A gastric ulcer would give epigastric pain during the meal, associated with nausea and vomiting, as gastric acid production is increased as food enters the stomach.

Entero-oxyntin

Entero-oxyntin is a hormone released from intestinal endocrine cells which stimulates gastric acid secretion in the stomach.

Achlorhydria

hypochlorhydriaachyliaachlorhydric
In hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria, there is low or no gastric acid in the stomach, potentially leading to problems as the disinfectant properties of the gastric lumen are decreased.

Parietal cell

parietal cellscanaliculiparietal
The main constituent of gastric acid is hydrochloric acid which is produced by parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) in the gastric glands in the stomach.

Alexis St. Martin

The role of gastric acid in digestion was established in the 1820s and 1830s by William Beaumont on Alexis St. Martin, who, as a result of an accident, had a fistula (hole) in his stomach, which allowed Beaumont to observe the process of digestion and to extract gastric acid, verifying that acid played a crucial role in digestion.
Studies of St. Martin's stomach led to greater understanding of the stomach, gastric juices and the processes of digestion.

William Beaumont

Beaumont, WilliamDr. Beaumont
The role of gastric acid in digestion was established in the 1820s and 1830s by William Beaumont on Alexis St. Martin, who, as a result of an accident, had a fistula (hole) in his stomach, which allowed Beaumont to observe the process of digestion and to extract gastric acid, verifying that acid played a crucial role in digestion.
Beaumont also extracted a sample of gastric acid from St. Martin's stomach for analysis.