Gastrocnemius muscle

gastrocnemiusCalvescalfcalf musclecalf musclesgastrocnemiigastrocnemiouslateral gastrocnemiuslateral gastrocnemius tendonmedial gastrocnemius
The gastrocnemius muscle (plural gastrocnemii) is a superficial two-headed muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg of humans.wikipedia
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Achilles tendon

AchillesAchilles' tendoncalcaneal tendon
Its other end forms a common tendon with the soleus muscle; this tendon is known as the calcaneal tendon or Achilles tendon and inserts onto the posterior surface of the calcaneus, or heel bone.
It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone.

Soleus muscle

soleus
Its other end forms a common tendon with the soleus muscle; this tendon is known as the calcaneal tendon or Achilles tendon and inserts onto the posterior surface of the calcaneus, or heel bone. The gastrocnemius is located with the soleus in the posterior (back) compartment of the leg.
It is closely connected to the gastrocnemius muscle and some anatomists consider them to be a single muscle, the triceps surae.

Triceps surae muscle

calf muscletriceps suraecalf
Some anatomists consider both to be a single muscle—the triceps surae or "three-headed [muscle] of the calf"—since they share a common insertion via the Achilles tendon.
The triceps surae is a pair of muscles located at the calf – the two-headed gastrocnemius and the soleus.

Knee

knee injuryknee jointknees
It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel, a three joint muscle (knee, ankle and subtalar joints).

Plantaris muscle

plantaris
The plantaris muscle and a portion of its tendon run between the two muscles, which is involved in "locking" the knee from the standing position.
It is one of the plantar flexors in the posterior compartment of the leg, along with the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.

Calcaneus

calcaneumheel bonesustentaculum tali
Its other end forms a common tendon with the soleus muscle; this tendon is known as the calcaneal tendon or Achilles tendon and inserts onto the posterior surface of the calcaneus, or heel bone. It runs from its two heads just above the knee to the heel, a three joint muscle (knee, ankle and subtalar joints).
Three muscles insert on the calcaneus: the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris.

Femur

femorathigh bonefemoral
The lateral head originates from the lateral condyle of the femur, while the medial head originates from the medial condyle of the femur.
At its upper part is the adductor tubercle and behind it is a rough impression which gives origin to the medial head of the gastrocnemius.

Fabella

10% to 30% of individuals have a sesamoid bone called the "fabella" in the lateral (outer) head of the gastrocnemius muscle.
The fabella (Latin for little bean) is a small sesamoid bone found in some mammals embedded in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle behind the lateral condyle of the femur.

Sesamoid bone

sesamoidsesamoid bonesulnar sesamoid
10% to 30% of individuals have a sesamoid bone called the "fabella" in the lateral (outer) head of the gastrocnemius muscle.

Sural arteries

sural arteryInferior muscular arterysural
The sural arteries (inferior muscular arteries) are two large branches, lateral and medial, which are distributed to the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris muscles.

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

Anatomical abnormalities involving the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle result in popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.
During embryonic development, the medial head of gastrocnemius migrates medially and superiorly.

Foot

feetinstepft
The triceps surae consists of the soleus and the two heads of the gastrocnemius.

Tibialis anterior muscle

tibialis anterioranterior tibialisM. tibialis cranialis
Antagonists are plantar-flexors of the posterior compartment such as soleus and gastrocnemius.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
The gastrocnemius muscle (plural gastrocnemii) is a superficial two-headed muscle that is in the back part of the lower leg of humans.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
The muscle is named via Latin, from Greek γαστήρ (gaster) "belly or stomach" and κνήμη (knḗmē) "leg"; meaning "stomach of leg" (referring to the bulging shape of the calf).

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
The muscle is named via Latin, from Greek γαστήρ (gaster) "belly or stomach" and κνήμη (knḗmē) "leg"; meaning "stomach of leg" (referring to the bulging shape of the calf).

Tibia

shinshin boneshinbone
Since the anterior compartment of the leg is lateral to the tibia, the bulge of muscle medial to the tibia on the anterior side is actually the posterior compartment.

Precentral gyrus

precentralpre-central gyrus
The plan to use the gastrocnemius in running, jumping, knee and plantar flexing is created in the precentral gyrus in the cerebrum of the brain.

Spasm

muscle spasmsmuscle spasmspasmodic
The gastrocnemius muscle is prone to spasms, which are painful, involuntary contractions of the muscle that may last several minutes.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
The gastrocnemius muscle may also become inflamed due to overuse.

Anti-inflammatory

antiinflammatoryanti-inflammatoriesanti-inflammatory drug
Anti-inflammatory medications and physical therapy (heat, massage, and stretching) may be useful.

Electromyography

EMGelectromyogramelectromyographic
In a 1967 EMG study, Herman and Bragin concluded that its most important role was plantar flexing in large contractions and in rapid development of tension.

Anatomical terms of location

ventraldorsalanterior
In a 1967 EMG study, Herman and Bragin concluded that its most important role was plantar flexing in large contractions and in rapid development of tension.