Gastroenteritis

stomach fluinfectious diarrheacholera morbusgastro-enteritisviral gastroenteritisacute gastroenteritisintestinal infectionenteropathogensintestinal influenzadiarrhea
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.wikipedia
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Abdominal pain

stomach achestomachachestomach pain
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. For children at risk of dehydration from vomiting, taking a single dose of the anti vomiting medication metoclopramide or ondansetron, may be helpful, and butylscopolamine is useful in treating abdominal pain.
Common causes of pain in the abdomen include gastroenteritis and irritable bowel syndrome.

Norovirus

Norwalk virusnorovirusesNorovirus acute gastroenteritis
In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes. Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis.
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.

Influenza

fluthe fluhuman flu
It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".
Diarrhea and vomiting occur more commonly in gastroenteritis, which is an unrelated disease and sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or the "24-hour flu".

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
The most common cause is an infection of the intestines due to either a virus, bacteria, or parasite – a condition also known as gastroenteritis.

Rotavirus

rotavirirotovirusrotavirus infections
In children, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease. Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis.
It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis (which is often called "stomach flu" despite having no relation to influenza).

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Gastroenteritis is usually caused by viruses.
Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water.

Campylobacter

Campylobacter jejunicampylobacter infections
In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes.
C. jejuni is now recognized as one of the main causes of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries.

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
Repeat infections are typically seen in areas with poor sanitation, and malnutrition.
A lack of breastfeeding may contribute, as may a number of infectious diseases such as: gastroenteritis, pneumonia, malaria, and measles, which increase nutrient requirements.

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

hemolytic uremic syndromehaemolytic uraemic syndromehaemolytic uremic syndrome
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may occur due to infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella species.
Most cases occur after infectious diarrhea due to a specific type of E. coli called O157:H7.

Campylobacter jejuni

C. jejunicampylobacteriosisCampylobacter jejuni'' P37
In the developed world Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, with half of these cases associated with exposure to poultry.
This species of pathogenic bacteria is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
The vagal and enteric nervous system inputs transmit information regarding the state of the gastrointestinal system. Irritation of the GI mucosa by chemotherapy, radiation, distention, or acute infectious gastroenteritis activates the 5-HT 3 receptors of these inputs.

Adenoviridae

adenovirusadenovirusesadenoviral
Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis.
gastroenteritis (HAdV-F types 40, 41, HAdV-G type 52)

Infant formula

baby formulaformulaformula feeding
Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, and breastfeeding babies instead of using formula.
Studies have found infants in developed countries who consume formula are at increased risk for acute otitis media, gastroenteritis, severe lower respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, asthma, obesity, type 1 and 2 diabetes, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), eczema and necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to infants who are breastfed.

Astrovirus

Astrovirus infectionchicken astrovirus
Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis.
Human astroviruses have been shown in numerous studies to be an important cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide.

Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseaseCrohnchron
Crohn's disease is also a non-infectious source of (often severe) gastroenteritis.
It also often begins after gastroenteritis.

Foodborne illness

food poisoningptomaine poisoningptomaine
However, stool cultures should be performed in those with blood in the stool, those who might have been exposed to food poisoning, and those who have recently traveled to the developing world.
The incubation period tends to cause sufferers to not associate the symptoms with the item consumed, and so to cause sufferers to attribute the symptoms to gastroenteritis for example.

Fever

febrilepyrexiaague
Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur.
Infectious disease, e.g., influenza, primary HIV infection, malaria, Ebola, infectious mononucleosis, gastroenteritis, Lyme disease, Dengue

Drinking water

potable waterpotableclean water
Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, and breastfeeding babies instead of using formula.
This can result in infectious diseases, such as gastroenteritis, cholera, and typhoid, among others.

Guillain–Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barre syndromemiller fisher syndromeGuillain-Barré syndrome
Guillain–Barré syndrome occurs in 0.1%.
Most commonly these are episodes of gastroenteritis or a respiratory tract infection.

Ondansetron

zofran
For children at risk of dehydration from vomiting, taking a single dose of the anti vomiting medication metoclopramide or ondansetron, may be helpful, and butylscopolamine is useful in treating abdominal pain.
It is also useful in gastroenteritis.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Various pathogens can cause gastroenteritis an inflammation of the stomach and small intestine.

Fluid replacement

hydrationrehydrationfluid resuscitation
The primary treatment of gastroenteritis in both children and adults is rehydration.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a simple treatment for dehydration associated with diarrhea, particularly gastroenteritis/gastroenteropathy, such as that caused by cholera or rotavirus.

Antiemetic

antiemeticsanti-emeticanti-emetics
For children at risk of dehydration from vomiting, taking a single dose of the anti vomiting medication metoclopramide or ondansetron, may be helpful, and butylscopolamine is useful in treating abdominal pain.
They may be used for severe cases of gastroenteritis, especially if the patient is dehydrated.

Loperamide

Imodiumloperamide hydrochlorideloperamide (Imodium)
Loperamide, an opioid analogue, is commonly used for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea.
It is often used for this purpose in gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and short bowel syndrome.

Parasitism

parasiteparasiticparasites
However, bacteria, parasites, and fungus can also cause gastroenteritis.
Campylobacter jejuni, a cause of gastroenteritis, is spread by the fecal–oral route from animals, or by eating insufficiently cooked poultry, or by contaminated water.