Gastroenteritis

stomach flucholera morbusinfectious diarrheastomach virusgastro-enteritisacute gastroenteritisintestinal infectionviral gastroenteritisdiarrheaenteropathogens
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract—the stomach and small intestine.wikipedia
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Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachstomachache
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. For children at risk of dehydration from vomiting, taking a single dose of the anti vomiting medication metoclopramide or ondansetron, may be helpful, and butylscopolamine is useful in treating abdominal pain.
Common causes of pain in the abdomen include gastroenteritis and irritable bowel syndrome.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
The most common cause is an infection of the intestines due to either a virus, bacteria, or parasite – a condition also known as gastroenteritis.

Influenza

fluthe fluhuman flu
It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".
Diarrhea and vomiting occur more commonly in gastroenteritis, which is an unrelated disease and sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or the "24-hour flu".

Norovirus

Norwalk virusnorovirusesNorovirus acute gastroenteritis
In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes. Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis.
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Gastroenteritis is usually caused by viruses. Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of gastroenteritis.
Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal–oral route and are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body in food or water.

Rotavirus

rotavirirotovirusrotavirus infections
In children, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease. Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis. Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of gastroenteritis.
It infects and damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis (which is often called "stomach flu" despite having no relation to influenza).

Campylobacter

campylobacter infectionsCampylobacter jejuni
In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes. Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of gastroenteritis.
C. jejuni is now recognized as one of the main causes of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
The vagal and enteric nervous system inputs transmit information regarding the state of the gastrointestinal system. Irritation of the GI mucosa by chemotherapy, radiation, distention, or acute infectious gastroenteritis activates the 5-HT 3 receptors of these inputs.

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
Repeat infections are typically seen in areas with poor sanitation, and malnutrition.
A lack of breastfeeding may contribute, as may a number of infectious diseases such as: gastroenteritis, pneumonia, malaria, and measles, which increase nutrient requirements.

Fever

febrilepyrexiaague
Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur.
Infectious disease, e.g., influenza, primary HIV infection, malaria, Ebola, infectious mononucleosis, gastroenteritis, Lyme disease, Dengue

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

hemolytic uremic syndromehaemolytic uraemic syndromehaemolytic uremic syndrome
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) may occur due to infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella species.
Most cases occur after infectious diarrhea due to a specific type of E. coli called O157:H7.

Infant formula

formulababy formulaformula feeding
Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, and breastfeeding babies instead of using formula.
Studies have found infants in developed countries who consume formula are at increased risk for acute otitis media, gastroenteritis, severe lower respiratory tract infections, atopic dermatitis, asthma, obesity, type 1 and 2 diabetes, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), eczema and necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to infants who are breastfed.

Drinking water

potable waterpotableclean water
Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste, and breastfeeding babies instead of using formula.
This can result in infectious diseases, such as gastroenteritis, cholera, and typhoid, among others.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract—the stomach and small intestine.
Various pathogens can cause gastroenteritis an inflammation of the stomach and small intestine.

Campylobacter jejuni

C. jejuniCampylobacter jejuni'' P37campylobacteriosis
In the developed world Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, with half of these cases associated with exposure to poultry.
This species of pathogenic bacteria is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world.

Adenoviridae

adenovirusadenovirusesadenoviral
Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis.
gastroenteritis (HAdV-F types 40, 41, HAdV-G type 52)

Parasitism

parasiteparasiticparasites
However, bacteria, parasites, and fungus can also cause gastroenteritis.
Campylobacter jejuni, a cause of gastroenteritis, is spread by the fecal–oral route from animals, or by eating insufficiently cooked poultry, or by contaminated water.

Guillain–Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barre syndromemiller fisher syndromeGuillain-Barré syndrome
Guillain–Barré syndrome occurs in 0.1%.
Most commonly these are episodes of gastroenteritis or a respiratory tract infection.

Astrovirus

Astrovirus infectionchicken astrovirus
Rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus are known to cause viral gastroenteritis.
Human astroviruses have been shown in numerous studies to be an important cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide.

Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseasechronCrohn
Crohn's disease is also a non-infectious source of (often severe) gastroenteritis.
It also often begins after gastroenteritis.

Foodborne illness

food poisoningptomaine poisoningptomaine
However, stool cultures should be performed in those with blood in the stool, those who might have been exposed to food poisoning, and those who have recently traveled to the developing world.
The incubation period tends to cause sufferers to not associate the symptoms with the item consumed, and so to cause sufferers to attribute the symptoms to gastroenteritis for example.

Zinc

ZnZn 2+ zinc alloy
Zinc supplementation is recommended in children.
Gastroenteritis is strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc, possibly by direct antimicrobial action of the ions in the gastrointestinal tract, or by the absorption of the zinc and re-release from immune cells (all granulocytes secrete zinc), or both.

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of gastroenteritis.
Most E. coli strains do not cause disease, but virulent strains can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, hemorrhagic colitis, and Crohn's disease.

Staphylococcus aureus

S. aureusstaph infectionmethicillin-sensitive ''Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus infectious diarrhea may also occur in those who have used antibiotics.
Antigens known as superantigens can induce toxic shock syndrome (TSS). This group includes the toxins TSST-1, and enterotoxin type B, which causes TSS associated with tampon use. Toxic shock syndrome is characterized by fever, erythematous rash, low blood pressure, shock, multiple organ failure, and skin peeling. Lack of antibody to TSST-1 plays a part in the pathogenesis of TSS. Other strains of S. aureus can produce an enterotoxin that is the causative agent of a type of gastroenteritis. This form of gastroenteritis is self-limiting, characterized by vomiting and diarrhea 1-6 hours after ingestion of the toxin, with recovery in 8 to 24 hours. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and major abdominal pain.

Ondansetron

zofran
For children at risk of dehydration from vomiting, taking a single dose of the anti vomiting medication metoclopramide or ondansetron, may be helpful, and butylscopolamine is useful in treating abdominal pain.
It is also useful in gastroenteritis.