Gastroesophageal reflux disease

acid refluxgastroesophageal refluxGERDrefluxgastric refluxacid reflux diseasegastro-esophageal reflux diseaseGastro-oesophageal reflux diseaseesophageal refluxgastro-oesophageal reflux
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition in which stomach contents rise up into the esophagus, resulting in either symptoms or complications.wikipedia
439 Related Articles

Chest pain

chest painschest tightnesschest
Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea, chest pain, and coughing.
Other common causes include gastroesophageal reflux disease (30%), muscle or skeletal pain (28%), pneumonia (2%), shingles (0.5%), and anxiety disorders.

Esophagus

oesophagusesophageallower esophageal sphincter
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition in which stomach contents rise up into the esophagus, resulting in either symptoms or complications. Acid reflux is due to poor closure of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is at the junction between the stomach and the esophagus.
The esophagus may be affected by gastric reflux, cancer, prominent dilated blood vessels called varices that can bleed heavily, tears, constrictions, and disorders of motility.

Bad breath

halitosisfoul breathbad breath (halitosis)
Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth.
Treating underlying disease such as gum disease, tooth decay, or gastroesophageal reflux disease may help.

Heartburn

acid indigestionagitacardialgia
Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, regurgitation, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth. The most common symptoms of GERD in adults are an acidic taste in the mouth, regurgitation, and heartburn.
Heartburn is usually due to regurgitation of gastric acid (gastric reflux) into the esophagus and is the major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Esophageal stricture

strictureesophageal stenosisoesophageal stricture
Complications include esophagitis, esophageal stricture, and Barrett's esophagus.
It can be caused by or associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophagitis, a dysfunctional lower esophageal sphincter, disordered motility, lye ingestion, or a hiatal hernia.

Esophageal pH monitoring

Diagnosis among those who do not improve with simpler measures may involve gastroscopy, upper GI series, esophageal pH monitoring, or esophageal manometry.
Esophageal pH monitoring is the current gold standard for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Barrett's esophagus

Barrett's oesophagusBarrett’s esophagusBarrett esophagus
Complications include esophagitis, esophageal stricture, and Barrett's esophagus. GERD may lead to Barrett's esophagus, a type of intestinal metaplasia, which is in turn a precursor condition for esophageal cancer.
The condition is found in 5–15% of patients who seek medical care for heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD), although a large subgroup of patients with Barrett's esophagus are asymptomatic.

Antihistamine

antihistamineshistamine antagonistantihistaminic
Medications involved may include antihistamines, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants and sleeping pills.
Antihistamines that target the histamine H 2 -receptor are used to treat gastric acid conditions (e.g., peptic ulcers and acid reflux).

H2 antagonist

H 2 receptor antagonistH2 receptor antagonistsH 2 -receptor antagonist
Medications include antacids, H 2 receptor blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and prokinetics.
H 2 antagonists can be used in the treatment of dyspepsia, peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatal hernia, and taking certain medicines.

Hypersalivation

sialorrheaptyalismsialorrhoea
Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea, chest pain, and coughing.

Nausea

nauseousnauseatedvomiting
Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea, chest pain, and coughing.
Chronic nausea may be the presentation of many gastrointestinal disorders, occasionally as the major symptom, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, peptic ulcer, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Crohn's disease, hepatitis, upper gastrointestinal malignancy, and pancreatic cancer.

Esophagitis

erosive esophagitisOesophagitisreflux esophagitis
Complications include esophagitis, esophageal stricture, and Barrett's esophagus.
The most common cause of esophagitis is the reverse flow of acid from the stomach into the lower esophagus: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Esophageal cancer

throat canceroesophageal canceresophageal
GERD may lead to Barrett's esophagus, a type of intestinal metaplasia, which is in turn a precursor condition for esophageal cancer.
The most common causes of the adenocarcinoma type are smoking tobacco, obesity, and acid reflux.

Cough

coughingdry coughproductive cough
Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea, chest pain, and coughing. GERD has been linked to a variety of respiratory and laryngeal complaints such as laryngitis, chronic cough, pulmonary fibrosis, earache, and asthma, even when not clinically apparent. GERD in children may cause repeated vomiting, effortless spitting up, coughing, and other respiratory problems, such as wheezing.
Most of the time, irregular coughing is caused by a respiratory tract infection but can also be triggered by choking, smoking, air pollution, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, post-nasal drip, chronic bronchitis, lung tumors, heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors.

Laryngitis

Chronic laryngitislaryngotracheitisAcute laryngitis
GERD has been linked to a variety of respiratory and laryngeal complaints such as laryngitis, chronic cough, pulmonary fibrosis, earache, and asthma, even when not clinically apparent.
Chronic cases may occur due to smoking, tuberculosis, allergies, acid reflux, rheumatoid arthritis, or sarcoidosis.

Regurgitation (digestion)

regurgitationregurgitateregurgitated
The most common symptoms of GERD in adults are an acidic taste in the mouth, regurgitation, and heartburn.
It may be a symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
GERD has been linked to a variety of respiratory and laryngeal complaints such as laryngitis, chronic cough, pulmonary fibrosis, earache, and asthma, even when not clinically apparent.
A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in people with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea.

Asher Winkelstein

In 1934 gastroenterologist Asher Winkelstein described reflux and attributed the symptoms to stomach acid.
Asher Winkelstein (October 15, 1893 – May 30, 1972) was an American gastroenterologist who first described gastroesophageal reflux disease in 1935.

Burping

belchbelchingburp
Inconsolable crying, refusing food, crying for food and then pulling off the bottle or breast only to cry for it again, failure to gain adequate weight, bad breath, and burping are also common.

Sore throat

Throat painailments of the throatPain in the throat
Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea, chest pain, and coughing.
Gastroesophageal (acid) reflux disease can cause stomach acid to back up into the throat and also cause the throat to become sore.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
GERD in children may cause repeated vomiting, effortless spitting up, coughing, and other respiratory problems, such as wheezing.

Stomach

gastriccardiafundus
Acid reflux is due to poor closure of the lower esophageal sphincter, which is at the junction between the stomach and the esophagus.
It is used to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Systemic scleroderma

systemic sclerosisProgressive systemic sclerosisDiffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis
If this is left untreated, acid from the stomach can back up into the esophagus, causing esophagitis and GERD.