Gaulish language

GaulishGallicCelticGaul.Celtic dialectsContinental CelticGallic languageGallicismsGaulGaulisch
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire.wikipedia
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Galatian language

GalatianGalatian Celticxga
In a wider sense, it also comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe ("Noric"), parts of the Balkans, and Asia Minor ("Galatian"), which are thought to have been closely related.
Galatian was likely contemporary with and closely related to the Gaulish language.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire.
Roman jurists also show a concern for local languages such as Punic, Gaulish, and Aramaic in assuring the correct understanding and application of laws and oaths.

Lepontic language

LeponticLepontic Celtic languageLepontics
The more divergent Lepontic of Northern Italy has also sometimes been subsumed under Gaulish.
While some recent scholarship (e.g. Eska 1998) has tended to consider it simply as an early outlying form of Gaulish and closely akin to other, later attestations of Gaulish in Italy (Cisalpine Gaulish), some scholars (notably Lejeune 1971) continue to view it as a distinct Continental Celtic language.

Gaul

GallicGalliaGaulish
In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language spoken by the Celtic inhabitants of Gaul (modern-day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine).
The two adjectives are used synonymously, as "pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls", although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.

Rhône

RhoneRhone valleyRhône Valley
Attestations of Gaulish proper in present-day France are known as "Transalpine Gaulish". Its written record begins in the 3rd century BC with inscriptions in the Greek alphabet, found mainly in the Rhône area of southern France, where Greek cultural influence was present via the colony of Massilia, founded circa 600 BC. After the Roman conquest of Gaul (58–50 BC), the writing of Gaulish shifted to the Latin alphabet.
The Gaulish name of the river was *Rodonos or *Rotonos (from a PIE root *ret- "to run, roll" frequently found in river names).

Celtiberian language

CeltiberianNortheastern Hispano-CelticCeltib.
Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages.
Enough has been preserved to show that the Celtiberian language could be called Q-Celtic (like Goidelic), and not P-Celtic like Gaulish.

Insular Celtic languages

Insular CelticInsular Celtic languageCeltic
The precise linguistic relationships among them, as well as between them and the modern Insular Celtic languages, are uncertain and a matter of ongoing debate because of their sparse attestation.
The "Insular Celtic hypothesis" is a theory that the Brittonic and Goidelic languages evolved together in those islands, having a common ancestor more recent than any shared with the Continental Celtic languages such as Celtiberian, Gaulish, Galatian and Lepontic, among others, all of which are long extinct.

Goidelic languages

GaelicGoidelicGaelic languages
Gaulish, situated in the centre of the Celtic language area, shares with the neighbouring Brittonic languages of Great Britain, the change of the Indo-European labialized voiceless velar stop /kʷ/ > /p/, whereas both Celtiberian in the south and Goidelic in Ireland retain /kʷ/.
The forms of this speech are very close, and often identical, to the forms of Gaulish recorded before and during the Roman Empire.

Helvetii

HelvetianHelveticHelveti
Caesar relates that census accounts written in the Greek alphabet were found among the Helvetii. The most notable inscription found in Helvetic parts is the Bern zinc tablet, inscribed ΔΟΒΝΟΡΗΔΟ ΓΟΒΑΝΟ ΒΡΕΝΟΔΩΡ ΝΑΝΤΑΡΩΡ (Dobnorēdo gobano brenodōr nantarōr) and apparently dedicated to Gobannus, the Celtic god of metalwork.
The endonym Helvetii is mostly derived from a Gaulish elu-, meaning "gain, prosperity" or "multitude", cognate with Welsh elw and Old Irish prefix il-, meaning "many" or "multiple"

Common Brittonic

BrythonicBrittonicBritish
Taking this as the primary genealogical isogloss, some scholars see the Celtic languages to be divided into a "q-Celtic" group and a "p-Celtic" group, in which the p-Celtic languages Gaulish and Brittonic form a common "Gallo-Brittonic" branch.
Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic.

Druid

druidsdruidicdruidry
He also notes that as of 53 BC the Gaulish druids used the Greek alphabet for private and public transactions, with the important exception of druidic doctrines, which could only be memorised and were not allowed to be written down.
In this he probably draws on earlier writers; by the time of Caesar, Gaulish inscriptions had moved from the Greek script to the Latin script.

Cisalpine Gaulish

CisalpineCisalpine Gaulsxcg
Finally, there are a small number of inscriptions from the second and first centuries BC in Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), which share the same archaic alphabet as the Lepontic inscriptions but are found outside the Lepontic area proper. As they were written after the time of the Gaulish conquest of Cisalpine Gaul, they are usually identified as "Cisalpine Gaulish". They share some linguistic features both with Lepontic and with Transalpine Gaulish; for instance, both Lepontic and Cisalpine Gaulish simplify the consonant clusters -nd- and -χs- to -nn- and -ss- respectively, while both Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaulish replace inherited word-final -m with -n. Scholars have debated to what extent the distinctive features of Lepontic reflect merely its earlier origin or a genuine genealogical split, and to what extent Cisalpine Gaulish should be seen as a continuation of Lepontic or an independent offshoot of mainstream Transalpine Gaulish.
There is ongoing debate over whether Cisalpine Gaulish is a dialect of Gaulish (e.g.

Belgae

BelgicBelgianBelgic tribes
Julius Caesar reported in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico of 58 BC that the Celts/Gauls and their language are separated from the neighboring Aquitanians and Belgae by the rivers Garonne and Seine/Marne, respectively.
However, most of the Belgic tribal and personal names recorded are identifiably Gaulish, including those of the Germani cisrhenani, and this is indeed also true of the tribes immediately over the Rhine at this time, such as the Tencteri and Usipetes.

Roman Gaul

GaulGallo-RomanGallic
Later inscriptions dating to Roman Gaul are mostly in the Latin alphabet and have been found principally in central France.
The Gaulish language was marginalized and eventually extinct, being replaced by regional forms of Late Latin which in the medieval period developed into the group of Gallo-Romance languages (including French and Occitan).

Etruscan language

Etruscanlanguageancient Etruscan
The Latin author Aulus Gellius (c. 180) mentions Gaulish alongside the Etruscan language in one anecdote, indicating that (North Italian?) Gaulish is alive at the time of writing.
Around 180, the Latin author Aulus Gellius mentions Etruscan alongside the Gaulish language in an anecdote.

Noric language

Noricnrc
In a wider sense, it also comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe ("Noric"), parts of the Balkans, and Asia Minor ("Galatian"), which are thought to have been closely related.
However, the language was probably similar to the other Celtic languages near to it, such as Gaulish.

Continental Celtic languages

Continental CelticCelticCeltic languages
Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages.
Gaulish (3rd century BC to 5th century AD) was the main language spoken in greater Gaul. This is often considered to be divided into two dialects, Cisalpine (the Italian side) and Transalpine (the French side). It is evidenced in a number of inscriptions as well as place names and tribal names in writings of classical authors. It may have been a substratum to Breton, as noted above.

Coligny calendar

Calendar of ColignyColignyGaul
The most famous Gaulish record is the Coligny calendar, a fragmented bronze tablet dating from the 2nd century AD and providing the names of Celtic months over a five-year span; it is a lunisolar calendar attempting to synchronize the solar year and the lunar month by inserting a thirteenth month every two and a half years.
The Coligny calendar is a Gaulish peg calendar or parapegma made in Roman Gaul in the 2nd century, giving a five-year cycle of a lunisolar calendar with intercalary months.

Celtic languages

CelticCeltic languageCeltic word
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire. Taking this as the primary genealogical isogloss, some scholars see the Celtic languages to be divided into a "q-Celtic" group and a "p-Celtic" group, in which the p-Celtic languages Gaulish and Brittonic form a common "Gallo-Brittonic" branch.
Gaulish languages, including Galatian and possibly Noric. These languages were once spoken in a wide arc from Belgium to Turkey. They are now all extinct.

List of French words of Gaulish origin

Gaulish loanwordsGaulish via Frenchwords of Gaulish origin
Furthermore, the French language offers some Gaulish loanwords.
The Gaulish language, and presumably its many dialects and closely allied sister languages, left a few hundred words in French and many more in nearby Romance languages, i.e. Franco-Provençal (Eastern France and Western Switzerland), Occitan (Southern France), Catalan, Romansch, Gallo-Italian (Northern Italy), and many of the regional languages of northern France and Belgium collectively known as langues d'oïl (e.g. Walloon, Norman, Gallo, Picard, Bourguignon, and Poitevin).

Gallo-Brittonic languages

p-CelticGallo-BrittonicP-Celtic hypothesis
Taking this as the primary genealogical isogloss, some scholars see the Celtic languages to be divided into a "q-Celtic" group and a "p-Celtic" group, in which the p-Celtic languages Gaulish and Brittonic form a common "Gallo-Brittonic" branch.
The hypothesis that the languages spoken in Gaul and Great Britain (Gaulish and the Brittonic languages) descended from a common ancestor, separate from the Celtic languages of Ireland, Spain, and Italy, is based on a number of linguistic innovations, principally the evolution of Proto-Celtic *kʷ into (thus the name "P-Celtic").

Chamalières tablet

lead tablet
Inscriptions include short dedications, funerary monuments, proprietary statements, and expressions of human sentiments, but the Gauls also left some longer documents of a legal or magical-religious nature, the three longest being the Larzac tablet, the Chamalières tablet and the Lezoux dish.
The text is written in the Gaulish language, with cursive Latin letters.

Gobannus

The most notable inscription found in Helvetic parts is the Bern zinc tablet, inscribed ΔΟΒΝΟΡΗΔΟ ΓΟΒΑΝΟ ΒΡΕΝΟΔΩΡ ΝΑΝΤΑΡΩΡ (Dobnorēdo gobano brenodōr nantarōr) and apparently dedicated to Gobannus, the Celtic god of metalwork.
Gobannus (or Gobannos, the Gaulish form, sometimes Cobannus) was a Gallo-Roman god, whose name, denoting "the smith", is normally taken to identify him as patron of smiths.

Larzac tablet

a lead curse tabletCurse tabletcurse tablet from L'Hospitalet-du-Larzac
Inscriptions include short dedications, funerary monuments, proprietary statements, and expressions of human sentiments, but the Gauls also left some longer documents of a legal or magical-religious nature, the three longest being the Larzac tablet, the Chamalières tablet and the Lezoux dish.
It bears one of the most important inscriptions in the Gaulish language.

Loire

River LoireLoire RiverLoire estuary
The lead inscription from Rezé (dated to the 2nd century, at the mouth of the Loire, 450 km northwest of La Graufesenque) is evidently an account or a calculation and contains quite different ordinals:
The name "Loire" comes from Latin Liger, which is itself a transcription of the native Gaulish (Celtic) name of the river.