Gautama Buddha

Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.
Seated Buddha from Tapa Shotor monastery in Hadda, Afghanistan, 2nd century CE
Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (c. 500 BCE)
Inscription "The illumination of the Blessed Sakamuni" (Brahmi script: 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁄 𑀲𑀓𑀫𑀼𑀦𑀺𑀦𑁄 𑀩𑁄𑀥𑁄, Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho) on a relief showing the "empty" Illumination Throne of the Buddha in the early Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya. Bharhut, c. 100 BCE.
One of the earliest anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha, here surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right). Bimaran Casket, mid-1st century CE, British Museum.
Māyā miraculously giving birth to Siddhārtha. Sanskrit, palm-leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period
The legendary Jataka collections depict the Buddha-to-be in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara, making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood.
Map showing Lumbini and other major Buddhist sites in India. Lumbini (present-day Nepal), is the birthplace of the Buddha, and is a holy place also for many non-Buddhists.
The Lumbini pillar contains an inscription stating that this is the Buddha's birthplace
The "Great Departure" of Siddhartha Gautama, surrounded by a halo, he is accompanied by numerous guards and devata who have come to pay homage; Gandhara, Kushan period
Prince Siddhartha shaves his hair and becomes a sramana. Borobudur, 8th century
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in Wat Suthat in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
The Mahabodhi Tree at the Sri Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya
The Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha at Bodh Gaya, as recreated by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE.
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the River Nairañjanā. The Buddha is not visible (aniconism), only represented by a path on the water, and his empty throne bottom right. Sanchi.
Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, site of the first teaching of the Buddha in which he taught the Four Noble Truths to his first five disciples
The chief disciples of the Buddha, Mogallana (chief in psychic power) and Sariputta (chief in wisdom).
The remains of a section of Jetavana Monastery, just outside of ancient Savatthi, in Uttar Pradesh.
Mahāprajāpatī, the first bhikkuni and Buddha's stepmother, ordains
This East Javanese relief depicts the Buddha in his final days, and Ānanda, his chief attendant.
Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara, 3rd or 4th century CE, gray schist
Mahaparinibbana scene, from the Ajanta caves
Buddha's cremation stupa, Kushinagar (Kushinara).
Piprahwa vase with relics of the Buddha. The inscription reads: ...salilanidhane Budhasa Bhagavate... (Brahmi script: ...𑀲𑀮𑀺𑀮𑀦𑀺𑀥𑀸𑀦𑁂 𑀩𑀼𑀥𑀲 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁂...) "Relics of the Buddha Lord".
The Bodhisattva meets with Alara Kalama, Borobudur relief.
Gandharan Buddhist birchbark scroll fragments
Buddha meets a Brahmin, at the Indian Museum, Kolkata
Schist Buddha statue with the famed Ye Dharma Hetu dhāraṇī around the head, which was used as a common summary of Dependent Origination. It states: "Of those experiences that arise from a cause, The Tathāgata has said: 'this is their cause, And this is their cessation': This is what the Great Śramaṇa teaches."
Gandharan sculpture depicting the Buddha in the full lotus seated meditation posture, 2nd-3rd century CE
Buddha Statues from Gal Vihara. The Early Buddhist texts also mention meditation practice while standing and lying down.
The Buddha on a coin of Kushan ruler Kanishka I, c. 130 CE.
Buddhist monks from Nepal. According to the earliest sources, the Buddha looked like a typical shaved man from northeast India.
Buddha depicted as the 9th avatar of god Vishnu in a traditional Hindu representation
Christ and Buddha by Paul Ranson, 1880
A Royal Couple Visits the Buddha, from railing of the Bharhut Stupa, Shunga dynasty, early 2nd century BC.
Adoration of the Diamond Throne and the Bodhi Tree, Bharhut.
Descent of the Buddha from the Trayastrimsa Heaven, Sanchi Stupa No. 1.
The Buddha's Miracle at Kapilavastu, Sanchi Stupa 1.
Bimbisara visiting the Buddha (represented as empty throne) at the Bamboo garden in Rajagriha
The great departure with riderless horse, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
The Assault of Mara, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
Isapur Buddha, one of the earliest physical depictions of the Buddha, c. 15 CE.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Quintanilla |first1=Sonya Rhie |title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE – 100 CE |date=2007 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=9789004155374 |pages=199–206, 204 for the exact date |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA204}}</ref> Art of Mathura
The Buddha attended by Indra at Indrasala Cave, Mathura 50-100 CE.
Buddha Preaching in Tushita Heaven. Amaravati, Satavahana period, 2d century CE. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara.
Gandharan Buddha with Vajrapani-Herakles.
Kushan period Buddha Triad.
Buddha statue from Sanchi.
Birth of the Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE.
The Infant Buddha Taking A Bath, Gandhara 2nd century CE.
6th century Gandharan Buddha.
Buddha at Cave No. 6, Ajanta Caves.
Standing Buddha, c. 5th Century CE.
Sarnath standing Buddha, 5th century CE.
Seated Buddha, Gupta period.
Seated Buddha at Gal Vihara, Sri Lanka.
Chinese Stele with Sakyamuni and Bodhisattvas, Wei period, 536 CE.
The Shakyamuni Daibutsu Bronze, c. 609, Nara, Japan.
Amaravati style Buddha of Srivijaya period, Palembang, Indonesia, 7th century.
Korean Seokguram Cave Buddha, c. 774 CE.
Seated Buddha Vairocana flanked by Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani of Mendut temple, Central Java, Indonesia, early 9th century.
Buddha in the exposed stupa of Borobudur mandala, Central Java, Indonesia, c. 825.
Vairocana Buddha of Srivijaya style, Southern Thailand, 9th century.
Seated Buddha, Japan, Heian period, 9th-10th century.
Attack of Mara, 10th century, Dunhuang.
Cambodian Buddha with Mucalinda Nāga, c. 1100 CE, Banteay Chhmar, Cambodia
15th century Sukhothai Buddha.
15th century Sukhothai Walking Buddha.
Sakyamuni, Lao Tzu, and Confucius, c. from 1368 until 1644.
Chinese depiction of Shakyamuni, 1600.
Shakyamuni Buddha with Avadana Legend Scenes, Tibetan, 19th century
Golden Thai Buddha statue, Bodh Gaya.
Gautama statue, Shanyuan Temple, Liaoning Province, China.
Burmese style Buddha, Shwedagon pagoda, Yangon.
Large Gautama Buddha statue in Buddha Park of Ravangla.

Ancient Indian philosopher, ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

- Gautama Buddha
Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.

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Sarnath

Place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India.

Place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India.

Gautama Buddha teaching his first sermon in the Deer Park, Sarnath. Wall painting Manali
Gandhara Greco-Buddhist sculpture of Gautama Buddha delivering his first sermon in the deer park at Sarnath. He preached the Four Noble Truths, the middle path and the Eightfold Path. In the statue, he is seated in Padmasana with his right hand turning the Dharmachakra, resting on a Triratna symbol, flanked on either side by a deer. He is surrounded by five Bhikkhus with shaven heads. In the background, Vajrapani and other attendants, including probable princes, are seen. Statue on display at the Prince of Wales museum.
The Bala Boddhisattva, an important statue for dating Indian art, was dedicated in "the year 3 of Kanishka" (circa 123 CE) and was discovered at Sarnath.
Shri Digambar Jain Temple, Singhpuri, Sarnath, Varanasi
Emblem of the Supreme Court of India: Lion Capital with Dharma-chakra
Ancient Buddhist monasteries near Dhamekh Stupa Monument Site, Sarnath. The ruins of the original main temple are to the left.
Ashoka pillar capital of Sarnath.
Dharmarajika Stupa from the pre-Ashokan Era
Ashoka's Brahmi inscription on the main pillar
Buddha image at Sarnath, a replica of the excavated Dharmachakra Pravartana Buddha at Sarnath
Mulagandhakuti fresco by Kosetsu Nosu
Interior of Sri Digamber Jain Shreyansnath Mandir
Temple of the Tibetan community in Sarnath
Mulagandhakuti Vihara, Mahabodhi Society Buddhist temple at Sarnath
Head of West Asian foreigner, Sarnath.<ref>Page 122: About the Masarh lion: "This particular example of a foreign model gets added support from the male heads of foreigners from Patna city and Sarnath since they also prove beyond doubt that a section of the elite in the Gangetic Basin was of foreign origin. However, as noted earlier, this is an example of the late Mauryan period since this is not the type adopted in any Ashoka pillar. We are, therefore, visualizing a historical situation in India in which the West Asian influence on Indian art was felt more in the late Mauryan than in the early Mauryan period. The term West Asia in this context stands for Iran and Afghanistan, where the Sakas and Pahlavas had their base-camps for eastward movement. The prelude to future inroads of the Indo-Bactrians in India had after all started in the second century B.C."... in {{cite book |last1=Gupta |first1=Swarajya Prakash |author-link=Swaraj Prakash Gupta|title=The Roots of Indian Art: A Detailed Study of the Formative Period of Indian Art and Architecture, Third and Second Centuries B.C., Mauryan and Late Mauryan |year=1980 |publisher=B.R. Publishing Corporation |isbn=978-0-391-02172-3 |pages=88, 122 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=0lDqAAAAMAAJ |language=en}}.</ref>
Sarnath Mauryan capital.
Sarnath capital with an elephant.
Sarnath - Plan of Excavations and constructions.
View of Lord Buddha at Thai Temple Sarnath Varanasi.
Buddha statue inside a votive stupa, Sarnath

The Deer Park in Sarnath is where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna (Kauṇḍinya).

Gautama Buddha, called Shakyamuni "Sage of the Shakyas", the most famous Shakya. Seated bronze from Tibet, 11th century.

Shakya

Ancient eastern sub-Himalayan ethnic group of north-eastern South Asia whose existence is attested during the Iron Age.

Ancient eastern sub-Himalayan ethnic group of north-eastern South Asia whose existence is attested during the Iron Age.

Gautama Buddha, called Shakyamuni "Sage of the Shakyas", the most famous Shakya. Seated bronze from Tibet, 11th century.
Shakya among the gaṇa saṅghas
The words "Bu-dhe" and "Sa-kya-mu-nī" (Sage of the "Shakyas") in Brahmi script, on Ashoka's Rummindei Minor Pillar Edict (circa 250 BCE).
Bharhut inscription: Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho ("The illumination of the Blessed Sakamuni"), circa 100 BCE.
Map of mahajanapadas with the Shakya Republic next to Shravasti and Kosala.
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu, proceeding to meet his son the Buddha walking in mid-air (heads raised towards his path at the bottom of the panel), and to give him a Banyan tree (bottom left corner). Sanchi.
Ashoka's Mahabodhi Temple and Diamond throne in Bodh Gaya, built circa 250 BCE. The inscription between the Chaitya arches reads: "Bhagavato Sakamunino/ bodho" i.e. "The building round the Bodhi tree of the Holy Sakamuni (Shakyamuni)". Bharhut frieze (circa 100 BCE).

Suddhodana was married to the princess Māyā, who was the daughter of a Koliya noble, and the son of Suddhodana and Māyā was Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism.

Royal procession leaving Rajagriha, possibly depicting Ajatashatru, from Sanchi

Ajatashatru

One of the most important kings of the Haryanka dynasty of Magadha in East India.

One of the most important kings of the Haryanka dynasty of Magadha in East India.

Royal procession leaving Rajagriha, possibly depicting Ajatashatru, from Sanchi
Bimbisara jail where king Bimbisara kept in custody by his own son king Ajatashatru
The Sattapanni cave in which the first Buddhist council held was sponsored by King Ajatashatru.

He was the son of King Bimbisara and was a contemporary of both Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.

Mahākāśyapa (left) meets an ājīvika ascetic (right) and learns of the parinirvāna of the Buddha, Gandhāran sculpture. c. undefined 2nd–3rd century CE.

Mahākāśyapa

Mahākāśyapa (left) meets an ājīvika ascetic (right) and learns of the parinirvāna of the Buddha, Gandhāran sculpture. c. undefined 2nd–3rd century CE.
Pippala Cave in Rajgir, where Mahākāśyapa is recorded to have stayed.
A young Mahākāśyapa, wood, eighteenth century, Korea
Mahakasyapa in the Kizil Caves, carbon dated to 422-529 CE.
Mahākāśyapa. Seventh-eighth century, Mogao Caves, China
Burma, mid 19th century. Mahākassapa meeting the ājīvika ascetic (above) and paying homage to the Buddha's feet before the funeral pyre is lit (below)
Mahākāśyapa, Tham Khao Rup Chang Temple, Songkhla Province, Thailand
Mahākāśyapa sitting, holding a staff (missing). Wood, China, c. undefined 1000
Mahākāśyapa (left) and Ānanda (right), China, Song Dynasty (960–1279)
Mahākāśyapa holding a reliquary, sixth century, Hebei province, China
Painting of an image with Maitreya and Mahākāśyapa offering him Gautama Buddha's robe. Kasagidera Temple, Kasagi, Kyoto. The original eight-century colossal cliff-face image depicted here was destroyed by fire at an uncertain date.
Image of Maitreya, Tibet, 10th century. identifies the image at the right with Mahākāśyapa.
Mahākāśyapa, woodblock print by Munakata Shiko, Japan, 1939
Mahākāśyapa smiling at the lotus flower, by Hishida Shunsō, 1897, Nihonga style.
Mahākāśyapa holding a flower.
Mahākāśyapa depicted with hair and beard. Mural painting, Kizil Caves, Xinjiang, China, fourth–fifth century CE
Funeral pyre of the Buddha being lit at the arrival of Mahākāśyapa, from Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism, Ananda Coomaraswamy, 1916
In Mahāyāna iconography, Ānanda is often depicted flanking the Buddha at the right side, together with Mahākāśyapa at the left. Temple of Heaven Garden in Shantou, China.

Mahā Kāśyapa or Mahākāśyapa (Mahākassapa) was one of the principal disciples of Gautama Buddha.

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Merit (Buddhism)

Concept considered fundamental to Buddhist ethics.

Concept considered fundamental to Buddhist ethics.

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Giving helps to overcome selfishness and stills the mind; it prepares the mind for the practice of virtue.
Merit is a "beneficial and protective force which extends over a long period of time" (Terwiel)—and is the effect of good deeds.
The main concept of the field of merit is that good deeds done towards some recipients accrue more merit than good deeds to other recipients. This is compared with a seed planted in fertile ground, which reaps more and better fruits than in infertile ground.
In Thailand and Laos, a yearly festival is held, focused on the Vessantara Jātaka, a story of a previous life of the Buddha which is held sacred.
The emperor Asoka (Aśoka) is featured in later Pāli works as an important patron supporting the Sangha.
Merit release is a ritual of releasing animals from captivity, as a way of making merit.

The most fruitful form of merit-making is those good deeds done with regard to the Triple Gem, that is, the Buddha, his teachings, the Dhamma (Sanskrit: Dharma), and the Sangha.

The Lokottaravāda held there were innumerable pure lands of buddhas and bodhisattvas.

Lokottaravāda

One of the early Buddhist schools according to Mahayana doxological sources compiled by Bhāviveka, Vinitadeva and others, and was a subgroup which emerged from the Mahāsāṃghika.

One of the early Buddhist schools according to Mahayana doxological sources compiled by Bhāviveka, Vinitadeva and others, and was a subgroup which emerged from the Mahāsāṃghika.

The Lokottaravāda held there were innumerable pure lands of buddhas and bodhisattvas.
Bodhisattva statue from a Buddhist monastery in Afghanistan, a region where the Lokottaravāda were known to be prominent
Tibetan painting of Amitābha in his pure land, Sukhāvatī

The Buddha is viewed as transcendent (Skt.

Modern Thai depiction of the Sermon in the Deer Park at Sarnath

Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta

Modern Thai depiction of the Sermon in the Deer Park at Sarnath
Buddha Preaching his First Sermon, at Sarnath, c. 475 CE
A depiction of the first teaching of the Buddha from a Vietnamese Buddhist monastery in Quebec, Canada.

The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (Pali; Sanskrit: Dharmacakrapravartana Sūtra; English: The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of the Dharma Sutta or Promulgation of the Law Sutta) is a Buddhist text that is considered by Buddhists to be a record of the first sermon given by Gautama Buddha, the Sermon in the Deer Park at Sarnath.

Sanghamitta bringing the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka. Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara

Bhikkhunī

Fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.

Fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.

Sanghamitta bringing the Bodhi tree to Sri Lanka. Kelaniya Raja Maha Vihara
Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, the first modern Thai woman to receive full ordination as a Theravada bhikkhuni and Abbess of Songdhammakalyani Monastery, the only temple in Thailand where there are bhikkhunis.
A Vietnamese bhiksuni
Chân Không, bhikkhuni in the Order of Interbeing
A Taiwanese bhikṣuṇī, a member of the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage.
A high-ranking bhikṣuṇī in the Chinese Buddhist tradition during an alms round.
Full bhikṣuṇī ordination is common in the Dharmaguptaka lineage. Vesak, Taiwan
Head shaving before a Tibetan Buddhist nun's ordination. Spiti, India 2004
Novice nuns, Key Monastery, Spiti, India. 2004

The Canon reports that the order of bhikkhunis was first created by the Buddha at the specific request of his aunt and foster-mother Mahapajapati Gotami, who became the first ordained bhikkhuni.

Gangetic plain during the pre-Nanda era.

Early Buddhist texts

Early Buddhist texts (EBTs), early Buddhist literature or early Buddhist discourses are parallel texts shared by the early Buddhist schools.

Early Buddhist texts (EBTs), early Buddhist literature or early Buddhist discourses are parallel texts shared by the early Buddhist schools.

Gangetic plain during the pre-Nanda era.
Ashoka Minor Rock Edict No.3
Burmese-Pali Palm-leaf manuscript.
Gold Plates containing fragments of the Pali Tipitaka (5th century) found in Maunggan (a village near the city of Sriksetra).
Gandhara birchbark scroll fragments (c. 1st century) from British Library Collection

Various scholars of Buddhist studies such as Richard Gombrich, Akira Hirakawa, Alexander Wynne and A. K. Warder hold that Early Buddhist texts contain material that could possibly be traced to the historical Buddha himself or at least to the early years of pre-sectarian Buddhism.

Four Vedas

Vedas

The Vedas (,, वेदः) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

The Vedas (,, वेदः) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

Four Vedas
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the Atharvaveda.
Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari
A page from the Taittiriya Samhita, a layer of text within the Yajurveda

The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts, with the establishment of the various shakhas all over Northern India which annotated the mantra samhitas with Brahmana discussions of their meaning, and reaches its end in the age of Buddha and Panini and the rise of the Mahajanapadas (archaeologically, Northern Black Polished Ware).