Gaza Strip

Gaza City skyline, 2007.
Downtown Gaza, 2012.
Beit Hanoun region of Gaza in August 2014, after Israeli bombardments.
British artillery battery in front of Gaza, 1917
Gaza War Cemetery
Che Guevara visiting Gaza in 1959
View of Gaza during the 2000s.
Barrier fence
The Al Deira Hotel on the Gaza coast, 2009
Buildings damaged during Operation "Cast Lead".
Monthly rocket and mortar hits in Israel, 2008.
Israelis killed by Palestinians in Israel ( blue ) and Palestinians killed by Israelis in Gaza ( red )
Sea-view from the Al Deira Hotel on the Gaza coast
A resort in the Gaza Strip built on the location of the former Israeli settlement of Netzarim
Backyard industry
Muslim worshippers in Gaza
Damaged UN school and remmants of the Ministry of Interior in Gaza City, December 2012
Watchtower on the border between Rafah and Egypt.
Tent camp, April 2009, after Cast Lead.
University College of Applied Sciences, the largest college in Gaza
Islamic University of Gaza
Gaza amusement park.
Damaged part of Gaza airport, May 2002

Palestinian enclave on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

- Gaza Strip

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Blockade of the Gaza Strip

Palestinian workers wait at the Erez Crossing to enter the Gaza Strip, July 2005.
The Gaza Strip
An explosion caused by an Israeli airstrike in Gaza during the Gaza War.
Rafah border crossing – British aid convoy entering Gaza Strip from Egypt in 2009.
Pictured here: Knives, wrenches, and wooden clubs used to attack the soldiers during the 2010 Gaza flotilla raid.
Seen here are many boxes of expired medicine which were to be delivered as aid by the 2010 Gaza flotilla. Much of the cargo was like this.
Smuggling tunnel in Rafah, 2009

The blockade of the Gaza Strip is the ongoing land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip imposed by Israel and Egypt temporarily in 2005–2006 and permanently from 2007 onwards, following the Israeli disengagement from Gaza.

Israeli disengagement from Gaza

Map of the Gaza Strip in May 2005, a few months prior to the Israeli withdrawal. The major settlement blocs were the blue-shaded regions of this map.
Israeli–Palestinian coordination effort, 2005
Residents protest during the forced evacuation of the Israeli community Kfar Darom. August 18, 2005.
Residents protest against the evacuation of the Israeli community Kfar Darom. The sign reads: "Kfar Darom will not fall twice!". August 18, 2005
A group of residents refuses to evacuate the Israeli settlement Bedolach. August 17, 2005
Residents of Elei Sinai camping in Yad Mordechai, just over the border from their former homes.
A protest camp in Tel Aviv by members of Netzer Hazani left without homes

The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תוכנית ההתנתקות, Tokhnit HaHitnatkut) was the unilateral dismantling in 2005 of the 21 Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip and the evacuation of Israeli settlers and army from inside the Gaza Strip.

West Bank

Landlocked territory near the coast of the Mediterranean in Western Asia.

City of Bethlehem, West Bank
The Cave of the Patriarchs is one of the most famous holy sites in the region.
King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount in Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965
City of Jericho, West Bank
U.S. President George Bush and Mahmoud Abbas in Ramallah, 2008
View of the Judaean Mountains from Ramallah
Map of West Bank settlements and closures in January 2006: Yellow = Palestinian urban centers. Light pink = closed military areas or settlement boundary areas or areas isolated by the Israeli West Bank barrier; dark pink = settlements, outposts or military bases. The black line = route of the Barrier
Greater Jerusalem, May 2006. CIA remote sensing map showing areas considered settlements, plus refugee camps, fences, walls, etc.
West Bank barrier (Separating Wall)
Qalandiya Checkpoint between Ramallah and Jerusalem
Northern Governorates
Palestinian girl in Nablus
Jewish children in Tal Menashe.
Settlement of Ariel
Residential neighborhood of Ramallah
Road in the West Bank
Checkpoint before entering Jericho, 2005

Alongside the self-governing Gaza Strip, the Israeli-occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem are claimed by the State of Palestine as its sovereign territory, and thus remain a flashpoint of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

2006 Palestinian legislative election

Legislative elections were held in the Palestinian territories on 25 January 2006 in order to elect the second Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA).

Map showing electoral districts and areas of formal Palestinian control (green)

Palestinian voters in both the Gaza Strip and in the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) were eligible to participate in the elections.

Oslo Accords

The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; and the Oslo II Accord, signed in Taba, Egypt, in 1995.

Bill Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat at the White House in 1993
Area C, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011

Among the notable outcomes of the Oslo Accords was the creation of the Palestinian National Authority, which was tasked with the responsibility of conducted limited Palestinian self-governance over parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip; and the international acknowledgement of the PLO as Israel's partner in permanent-status negotiations about any remaining issues revolving around the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.


Palestinian nationalist social democratic political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).

Yasser Arafat was the primary founder of Fatah and its leader until his 2004 death.
Israeli troops in combat in Karameh

The Fatah movement was founded in 1959 by members of the Palestinian diaspora, principally by professionals working in the Persian Gulf States who had studied in Cairo or Beirut and had been refugees in Gaza.

2014 Gaza War

The 2014 Gaza War, also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, ),

Histogram of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel per day and start of the military operation (in red), 2014
A sculpture in Sderot made from rocket debris
Some of the weapons captured in Khan Yunis.
Street in Ramallah after an IDF raid during Operation Brother's Keeper, June 2014
Factory bursts in flames after rocket attack in Sderot, Israel, 28 June 2014
A map showing the location of damage in Gaza
Ruins of buildings in Beit Hanoun, August 2014
Five-year-old Shaymaa al-Masri was injured on 9 July 2014.
A kindergarten in central Israel during a rocket attack.
One of the shelter signs that were placed in the Ben Gurion Airport because of the rocket attacks on Israel.
Quds Day 2014 pro-Palestinian protest in Berlin, 25 July 2014
Pro-Israel demonstration in Helsinki, Finland
A pro-Israeli demonstration supporting Israel and the Israel Defense Forces in Tzuk Eytan
Banner on a kindergarten in Kiryat Ono saying "Dear soldiers! Take care of yourselves! You are our heroes!"
Demonstration against Operation Protective Edge in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Explosives were allegedly two steps away from a baby's bed in Gaza during the war.
Photo taken during the 72-hour ceasefire between Hamas and Israel on 6 August 2014. A destroyed ambulance in Shuja'iyya in the Gaza Strip.
House destroyed by a rocket in Yehud.
Ruins of a residential area in Beit Hanoun.
Range of rockets launched from Gaza Strip
Palestinian militants with rockets
IDF Artillery Corps fires a 155 mm M109 howitzer, 24 July 2014
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Benjamin Netanyahu, Tel Aviv, 23 July 2014

was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Gaza Strip, a Palestinian territory that has been governed by Hamas since 2007.

1949 Armistice Agreements

The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of armistice agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria to formally end the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line.

1955 United Nations map showing the Armistice Agreements, with original map reference points ("MR") on the Palestine grid referenced in the respective agreements.
Palestine Military Situation, April 6, 1949. Truman Papers
The Israeli delegation to the 1949 Armistice Agreements talks. Left to right: Commanders Yehoshafat Harkabi, Aryeh Simon, Yigael Yadin, and Yitzhak Rabin (1949)

The armistice demarcation line was drawn for the most part along the 1922 international border between Egypt and Mandatory Palestine, except near the Mediterranean Sea, where Egypt remained in control of a strip of land along the coast, which became known as the Gaza Strip.


Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west.

Palestinian National Authority

Fatah-controlled government body that exercises partial civil control over West Bank areas "A" and "B" as a consequence of the 1993–1995 Oslo Accords.

Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton and Yasser Arafat at the Oslo Accords signing ceremony on 13 September 1993.
CIA remote-sensing map of areas governed by the Palestinian Authority, July 2008.
The Palestinian legislative election in 2006, Hamas (green) and Fatah (yellow)
Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen), President of the Palestinian Authority since 2005 (disputed since 2009).

The Palestinian Authority controlled the Gaza Strip prior to the Palestinian elections of 2006 and the subsequent Gaza conflict between the Fatah and Hamas parties, when it lost control to Hamas; the PA continues to claim the Gaza Strip, although Hamas exercises de facto control.