Gelug

GelugpaGelukpaGelukYellow Hat SectGelug schoolYellow HatGelukpa OrderYellow Sect Gelug traditiondGe-lugs-pa
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.wikipedia
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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan BuddhistTibetanTibetan Buddhists
The Gelug (Wylie: dGe-Lugs-Pa) is the newest of the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug.

Ganden Tripa

Gaden TripaGanden Trihierarchical progression
The first monastery he established was named Ganden (which gives an alternative name to the Gelug school, the Ganden-Pa), and to this day the Ganden Tripa is the nominal head of the school, though its most influential figure is the Dalai Lama.
The Ganden Tripa or Gaden Tripa ( "Holder of the Ganden Throne") is the title of the spiritual leader of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, the school that controlled central Tibet from the mid-17th century until the 1950s.

Dalai Lama

the Dalai LamaDalai LamasDalai
The first monastery he established was named Ganden (which gives an alternative name to the Gelug school, the Ganden-Pa), and to this day the Ganden Tripa is the nominal head of the school, though its most influential figure is the Dalai Lama.
Dalai Lama (, ; Standard Tibetan:, Tā la'i bla ma, ) is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

Je Tsongkhapa

TsongkhapaTsong KhapaTsongkapa
It was founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419), a philosopher and Tibetan religious leader. The Gelug school was founded by Je Tsongkhapa, an eclectic Buddhist monk who traveled Tibet studying under Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma teachers, such as the Sakya Master Rendawa (1349–1412) and the Dzogchen master Drupchen Lekyi Dorje.
Tsongkhapa ("The man from Tsongkha", 1357–1419), usually taken to mean "the Man from Onion Valley", born in Amdo, was a famous teacher of Tibetan Buddhism whose activities led to the formation of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Nyingma

NyingmapaNyingmapa BuddhismRinchen Terdzod
The Gelug school was founded by Je Tsongkhapa, an eclectic Buddhist monk who traveled Tibet studying under Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma teachers, such as the Sakya Master Rendawa (1349–1412) and the Dzogchen master Drupchen Lekyi Dorje.
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug).

Sakya

SakyapaSakya SchoolSa skya
The Gelug school was founded by Je Tsongkhapa, an eclectic Buddhist monk who traveled Tibet studying under Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma teachers, such as the Sakya Master Rendawa (1349–1412) and the Dzogchen master Drupchen Lekyi Dorje.
The Sakya (, "pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug.

Tibet

TibetanGreater TibetThibet
It was founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419), a philosopher and Tibetan religious leader. Allying themselves with the Mongols as a powerful patron, the Gelug emerged as the pre-eminent Buddhist school in Tibet and Mongolia since the end of the 16th century. He combined this with extensive and unique writings on Madhyamaka, the Svatantrika-Prasaṅgika distinction, and Nagarjuna's philosophy of Śūnyatā (emptiness) that, in many ways, marked a turning point in the history of philosophy in Tibet.
The following 80 years saw the founding of the Gelug school (also known as Yellow Hats) by the disciples of Je Tsongkhapa, and the founding of the important Ganden, Drepung and Sera monasteries near Lhasa.

Lamrim

Lam RimLamrim ChenmoStages of the Path
The school itself was based upon the Lamrim or "Graded Path", approach synthesized by Atisa.
In Tibetan Buddhist history there have been many different versions of lamrim, presented by different teachers of the Nyingma, Kagyu and Gelug schools.

Kagyu

KagyupaKagyüKagyu School
The Gelug school was founded by Je Tsongkhapa, an eclectic Buddhist monk who traveled Tibet studying under Sakya, Kagyu and Nyingma teachers, such as the Sakya Master Rendawa (1349–1412) and the Dzogchen master Drupchen Lekyi Dorje.
There are references to the "Atiśa kagyu" for the Kadam or to "Jonang kagyu" for the Jonang and "Ganden kagyu" for the Gelug sects.

Sera Monastery

SeraSera JeSera Mey Monastic University
Tsongkhapa and his disciples founded Ganden monastery in 1409, which was followed by Drepung (1416) and Sera (1419), which became the "great three" Gelug monasteries.
Sera Monastery ( "Wild Roses Monastery" ; ) is one of the "great three" Gelug university monasteries of Tibet, located 1.25 mi north of Lhasa and about north of the Jokhang.

Ganden Monastery

GandenGadenGanden Shartse Monastery
The first monastery he established was named Ganden (which gives an alternative name to the Gelug school, the Ganden-Pa), and to this day the Ganden Tripa is the nominal head of the school, though its most influential figure is the Dalai Lama. Tsongkhapa and his disciples founded Ganden monastery in 1409, which was followed by Drepung (1416) and Sera (1419), which became the "great three" Gelug monasteries.
Ganden Monastery (also Gaden or Gandain) or Ganden Namgyeling is one of the "great three" Gelug university monasteries of Tibet.

Mongols

MongolMongolianMongolians
Allying themselves with the Mongols as a powerful patron, the Gelug emerged as the pre-eminent Buddhist school in Tibet and Mongolia since the end of the 16th century. In 1577 Sonam Gyatso, who was considered to be the third incarnation of Gyalwa Gendün Drup, formed an alliance with the then most powerful Mongol leader, Altan Khan.
The Qing forces secured their control over Inner Mongolia by 1635, and the army of the last khan Ligdan moved to battle against Tibetan Gelugpa sect (Yellow Hat sect) forces.

Drepung Monastery

DrepungDrepung Monastic UniversityLoseling
Tsongkhapa and his disciples founded Ganden monastery in 1409, which was followed by Drepung (1416) and Sera (1419), which became the "great three" Gelug monasteries.
Drepung Monastery (, "Rice Heap Monastery"), located at the foot of Mount Gephel, is one of the "great three" Gelug university gompas (monasteries) of Tibet.

Svatantrika–Prasaṅgika distinction

PrasangikaPrasaṅgikaSvatantrika
He combined this with extensive and unique writings on Madhyamaka, the Svatantrika-Prasaṅgika distinction, and Nagarjuna's philosophy of Śūnyatā (emptiness) that, in many ways, marked a turning point in the history of philosophy in Tibet.
Tsongkhapa (1357–1419), the founder of the Gelugpa school and the most outspoken proponent of the distinction, followed Candrakīrti in his rejection of Bhavaviveka's arguments.

Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, 1st Panchen Lama

Khedrup Gelek PelzangKhedrup Je1st Panchen Lama
Tsongkhapa had two principal disciples, Gyaltsab Je (1364—1432) and Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, 1st Panchen Lama (1385—1438).
Khedrup Gelek Pelzang, 1st Panchen Lama (1385–1438 CE) – better known as Khedrup Je – was one of the main disciples of Je Tsongkhapa, whose reforms to Atiśa's Kadam tradition are considered the beginnings of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.

3rd Dalai Lama

Sonam GyatsoThird Dalai LamaSonam Gyatso, 3rd Dalai Lama
In 1577 Sonam Gyatso, who was considered to be the third incarnation of Gyalwa Gendün Drup, formed an alliance with the then most powerful Mongol leader, Altan Khan.
Panchen Sonam Dragpa was the 15th Ganden Tripa and his texts still serve as the core curriculum for many Gelugpa monasteries.

Kadam (Tibetan Buddhism)

KadampaKadamKadam school
The Gelug school was also called the "New Kadam", because it saw itself a revival of the Kadam school founded by Atisha. The Kadam school was a monastic tradition in Tibet, founded by Atisa’s chief disciple Dromtön in 1056 C.E. with the establishment of Reting Monastery.
Later these teachings were incorporated into the Karma Kamtsang Kagyu lineage by Pal Tsuglak Trengwa and into the Gelug lineage by the 1st Dalai Lama.

Reting Monastery

RetingRadengRadeng monastery
The Kadam school was a monastic tradition in Tibet, founded by Atisa’s chief disciple Dromtön in 1056 C.E. with the establishment of Reting Monastery.
Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419) reformed the Kadam, which then became known as the Gelug lineage and Reting became an important Gelug monastery, the seat of the Reting Rinpoche.

1905 Tibetan Rebellion

1905 Tibetan Revoltrebellionsrevolted against Qing China
Scottish Botanist George Forrest, who witnessed the 1905 Tibetan Rebellion led by the Gelug Lamas, wrote that the majority of the people in the Mekong valley in Yunnan were Tibetan.
The Buddhist Gelug (Yellow) Sect was primarily responsible for the revolt and deaths.

Samten Karmay

Karmay, Samten G.KarmaySamten G. Karmay
According to Tibetan historian Samten Karmay, Sonam Chophel (1595–1657), treasurer of the Ganden Palace, was the prime architect of the Gelug's rise to political power.
He completed his studies in the Bon monastery in 1955, obtaining the degree of geshe, and left with a group of friends to Drepung Monastery, a Gelug gompa near Lhasa.

Atiśa

AtishaAtisaAtiśa Dipamkara Shrijnana
The Gelug school was also called the "New Kadam", because it saw itself a revival of the Kadam school founded by Atisha. The Kadam school was a monastic tradition in Tibet, founded by Atisa’s chief disciple Dromtön in 1056 C.E. with the establishment of Reting Monastery.
Atiśa's chief disciple, Dromtön, was the founder of the Kadam school, one of the New Translation schools of Tibetan Buddhism, later supplanted by the Gelug tradition in the 14th century, adopting its teachings and absorbing its monasteries.

Ganden Phodrang

Ganden PodrangTibetTibetan Government
The core leadership of this government was also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang.
Altan Khan of the Tümed Mongols chose the Gelug order of Tibetan Buddhism as his Buddhist faith.

Altan Khan

AltanSiege of BeijingAltan Khan of the Tümed
In 1577 Sonam Gyatso, who was considered to be the third incarnation of Gyalwa Gendün Drup, formed an alliance with the then most powerful Mongol leader, Altan Khan.
Altan Khan is particularly remembered for establishing ties between Mongolia and the religious leaders of the Tibetan Gelug order.

14th Dalai Lama

Dalai LamaTenzin Gyatsothe Dalai Lama
After the Incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China, thousands of Tibetan monasteries were destroyed or damaged, and many Gelug monks, including the 14th Dalai Lama fled the country to India.
Dalai Lamas are important monks of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism, which was formally headed by the Ganden Tripas.

Anuttarayoga Tantra

anuttarayogatantraHighest Yoga TantraAnuttarayoga
This is combined with the yogas of Anuttarayoga Tantra iṣṭadevatā such as the Guhyasamāja, Cakrasaṃvara, Yamāntaka and Kālacakra tantras, where the key focus is the direct experience of the indivisible union of bliss and emptiness.
According to the Gelugpa tradition, in Highest Yoga Tantra, the Buddha taught the most profound instructions for transforming sensual pleasure into the quick path to enlightenment, which in turn depends upon the ability to gather and dissolve the inner winds (Sanskrit: prana) into the central channel through the power of meditation.