Gender

gender issuessexgendersgenderedbiological genderGender and Developmentgender expressiongenderingsexesabove
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.wikipedia
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Gender identity

gender identitiesgendergender spectrum
Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex (i.e., the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation), sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity.
Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender.

Third gender

third sexthird-genderwaria
Some societies have specific genders besides "man" and "woman", such as the hijras of South Asia; these are often referred to as third genders (and fourth genders, etc). In the language of the sociology of gender, some of these people may be considered third gender, especially by those in gender studies or anthropology.
It is also a social category present in societies that recognize three or more genders.

Sex and gender distinction

sex or gendersex and genderdistinct
Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955.
The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person's gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity).

Transsexual

transsexualismtranssexualstranssexuality
This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in 1978.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.

John Money

Gender Identity ClinicMoney, John
Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955.
He was one of the first researchers to publish theories on the influence of societal constructs of "gender" on individual formation of gender identity.

Gender studies

gendergender theorygender and sexuality studies
The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies.
These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature, language, geography, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, cinema, media studies, human development, law, public health and medicine.

Gender binary

binary genderbinarybinary gender system
Most cultures use a gender binary, having two genders (boys/men and girls/women); those who exist outside these groups fall under the umbrella term non-binary or genderqueer.
In this binary model, sex, gender, and sexuality may be assumed by default to align, with aspects of one's gender inherently linked to one's genetic or gamete-based sex, or with one's sex assigned at birth.

Epicenity

epiceneepicenesEpicenism
The modern academic sense of the word, in the context of social roles of men and women, dates at least back to 1945, and was popularized and developed by the feminist movement from the 1970s onwards (see § Feminism theory and gender studies below), which theorizes that human nature is essentially epicene and social distinctions based on sex are arbitrarily constructed.
Epicenity is the lack of gender distinction, often specifically the loss of masculinity.

Gender inequality

gender inequalitiesgender imbalanceinequality
Although the specific nature and degree of these differences vary from one society to the next, they still tend to typically favor men, creating an imbalance in power and gender inequalities within most societies.
Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's living experience.

Sociology of gender

gendergender relationsGender and violence
In the language of the sociology of gender, some of these people may be considered third gender, especially by those in gender studies or anthropology.
Public discourse and the academic literature generally use the term gender for the perceived or projected (self-identified) masculinity or femininity of a person.

Judith Butler

ButlerButler, JudithButlerian
Judith Butler considers the concept of being a woman to have more challenges, owing not only to society's viewing women as a social category but also as a felt sense of self, a culturally conditioned or constructed subjective identity.
Butler is best known for her books Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990) and Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex (1993), in which she challenges conventional notions of gender and develops her theory of gender performativity.

Social construction of gender

gender performativitygender performanceSocial construction of gender difference
However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender.
Historically, the term gender was adopted as means of distinguishing between biological sex and socialized aspects of femininity and masculinity.

Gender role

gender rolesgender stereotypesgender norms
Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex (i.e., the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation), sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity.
Because of the influence of Simone de Beauvoir's feminist works and Michel Foucault's reflections on sexuality (among others), the idea that gender was unrelated to sex gained ground during the 1980s, especially in sociology and cultural anthropology.

Sexual orientation

sexualitysexual preferenceorientation
Charles E. Hurst states that some people think sex will, "...automatically determine one's gender demeanor and role (social) as well as one's sexual orientation (sexual attractions and behavior). Gender sociologists believe that people have cultural origins and habits for dealing with gender. For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations. Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". People do this through everything from clothing and hairstyle to relationship and employment choices. Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.

Feminist theory

feministfeminist theoriesfeminist theorist
However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender.
It maintains that gender is not biological but is based on the psycho-sexual development of the individual, but also that sexual difference and gender are different notions.

Gender in Bugis society

bissufive gendersa tradition
The Bugis people of Sulawesi, Indonesia have a tradition that incorporates all the features above.
Most Bugis are Muslim, but many pre-Islamic rituals continue to be honoured in their culture, including the view that gender and sexuality exist on a spectrum.

Women's studies

Women’s Studiesfeminist studieswomen
With regard to history, Linda Nicholson, a professor of history and women's studies, points out that the understanding of human bodies as sexually dimorphic was historically not recognised.
Women's studies is an academic field that draws on feminist and interdisciplinary methods in order to place women’s lives and experiences at the center of study, while examining social and cultural constructs of gender; systems of privilege and oppression; and the relationships between power and gender as they intersect with other identities and social locations such as race, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, and disability.

Clothing

apparelgarmentclothes
Charles E. Hurst states that some people think sex will, "...automatically determine one's gender demeanor and role (social) as well as one's sexual orientation (sexual attractions and behavior). Gender sociologists believe that people have cultural origins and habits for dealing with gender. For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations. Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". People do this through everything from clothing and hairstyle to relationship and employment choices. Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them.
In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status.

Discrimination

discriminatoryanti-discriminationdiscriminate
In legal cases alleging discrimination, sex is usually preferred as the determining factor rather than gender as it refers to biology rather than socially constructed norms which are more open to interpretation and dispute.
Though gender discrimination and sexism refer to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences.

Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories.
This usually means masculine or feminine, depending on the referent's sex (or gender in the sociological sense).

Gender expression

expressiongender presentationexpressing herself as a woman
Gender expression is a person's behavior, mannerisms, interests, and appearance that are associated with gender in a particular cultural context, specifically with the categories of femininity or masculinity.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature and language, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, cinema and media studies, human development, law, and medicine.
The different traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, religion, secularization, law, sexuality, gender, and deviance.

Same-sex marriage

gay marriagemarriage equalitysame sex marriage
Marriage is usually only available to opposite-sex couples; in some countries and jurisdictions there are same-sex marriage laws.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of two people of the same sex or gender, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.

Homosexuality

homosexualgayhomosexuals
For example, the sociological approach to "gender" (social roles: female versus male) focuses on the difference in (economic/power) position between a male CEO (disregarding the fact that he is heterosexual or homosexual) to female workers in his employ (disregarding whether they are straight or gay).
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

Heterosexuality

heterosexualstraightheterosexuals
For example, the sociological approach to "gender" (social roles: female versus male) focuses on the difference in (economic/power) position between a male CEO (disregarding the fact that he is heterosexual or homosexual) to female workers in his employ (disregarding whether they are straight or gay).
Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.