Gender equality

gender equityequalitywomen's equalitysexual equalityequality of the sexesgenderequality between men and womensex equalityequality of womengender egalitarianism
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality or equality of the sexes, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.wikipedia
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Women's rights

women’s rightswomenwomen's rights movement
Gender equality is more than equal representation, it is strongly tied to women's rights, and often requires policy changes.
Women during the early Vedic period enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life.

Feminism

feministfeministsemancipation of women
Feminism is a range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.

Shakers

ShakerShakerismShaker music
The Shakers, an evangelical group, which practiced segregation of the sexes and strict celibacy, were early practitioners of gender equality.
They practice a celibate and communal lifestyle, pacifism, uniform charismatic worship, and their model of equality of the sexes, which they institutionalized in their society in the 1780s.

Topfreedom

topfreeTopfree Equal Rights Associationtopless
For example, topfreedom, the right to be bare breasted in public, frequently applies only to males and has remained a marginal issue.
Topfreedom is a cultural and political movement seeking changes in laws to allow women to be topless in public places where men are permitted to be barechested, as a form of gender equality.

Gender Equality Bureau

Gender Equality Law
The feminist movement in Japan has made many strides which resulted in the Gender Equality Bureau, but Japan still remains low in gender equality compared to other industrialized nations.
The Gender Equality Bureau was established in 2001 as a division of the Japanese Cabinet Office tasked with planning and coordinating the policies of the Japanese Government pertaining to gender equality.

Sustainable Development Goals

2030 Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development GoalSDGs
As of 2017, gender equality is the fifth of seventeen sustainable development goals of the United Nations.
==== "Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls."

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

CEDAWCommittee on the Elimination of Discrimination against WomenConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
Article 2 mandates that states parties ratifying the Convention declare intent to enshrine gender equality into their domestic legislation, repeal all discriminatory provisions in their laws, and enact new provisions to guard against discrimination against women.

Maputo Protocol

Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in AfricaProtocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the Rights of Women in AfricaProtocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa
Protocol, guarantees comprehensive rights to women including the right to take part in the political process, to social and political equality with men, improved autonomy in their reproductive health decisions, and an end to female genital mutilation.

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
As of 2017, gender equality is the fifth of seventeen sustainable development goals of the United Nations.
The three day meeting was the largest gathering of world leaders in history, and culminated in the adoption by all member states of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a commitment to achieve international development in areas such as poverty reduction, gender equality, and public health.

European Institute for Gender Equality

European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE)
In 2010, the European Union opened the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) in Vilnius, Lithuania to promote gender equality and to fight sex discrimination.
The European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) is a European Union-initiated body dedicated exclusively to gender equality.

Women's health

women’s healthWomen's Issueswomen
The World Health Organization cites the example of women not being allowed to travel alone outside the home (to go to the hospital), and women being prevented by cultural norms to ask their husbands to use a condom, in cultures which simultaneously encourage male promiscuity, as social norms that harm women's health.
Although women in industrialised countries have narrowed the gender gap in life expectancy and now live longer than men, in many areas of health they experience earlier and more severe disease with poorer outcomes.

Gender inequality

gender inequalitiesgender imbalanceinequality
Gender inequality is measured annually by the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Reports.
East Asia in its turn was characterized by a high numeracy level and gender equality.

Breastfeeding in public

Breast Feedingbreastfeedbreastfeed in public
Breastfeeding in public is now more commonly tolerated, especially in semi-private places such as restaurants.
In Canada, Section 28 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms gives equal rights and freedoms to men and women, without explicitly mentioning breastfeeding.

Reproductive rights

reproductive freedomreproductiveProcreative liberty
A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive rights of women.
The theory begins with the premise that when a woman becomes pregnant she has the option of abortion, adoption, or parenthood; it argues, in the context of legally recognized gender equality, that in the earliest stages of pregnancy the putative (alleged) father should have the right to relinquish all future parental rights and financial responsibility, leaving the informed mother with the same three options.

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
This includes both violence committed inside marriage (domestic violence) as well as violence related to marriage customs and traditions (such as dowry, bride price, forced marriage and child marriage). UN Women recommended its abolition, and stated that: "Legislation should [...] State that divorce shall not be contingent upon the return of bride price but such provisions shall not be interpreted to limit women’s right to divorce; State that a perpetrator of domestic violence, including marital rape, cannot use the fact that he paid bride price as a defence to a domestic violence charge."
Research has established that there exists a direct and significant correlation between a country's level of gender equality and rates of domestic violence, where countries with less gender equality experience higher rates of domestic violence.

Gender neutrality

gender-neutralgender neutralgender-neutral housing
There has been criticism that international law, international courts, and universal gender neutral concepts of human rights are at best silent on many of the issues important to women and at worst male centered; considering the male person to be the default.
Gender neutrality emphasizes the equal treatment of men and women and people of any other gender legally with no discrimination whatsoever.

Forced marriage

forced marriagesshotgun marriageforced
This includes both violence committed inside marriage (domestic violence) as well as violence related to marriage customs and traditions (such as dowry, bride price, forced marriage and child marriage).
Among the last European countries to establish full gender equality in marriage were Switzerland, Greece, Spain, the Netherlands, and France in the 1980s.

Lucy Wright

He then brought Lucy Wright into the ministry as his female counterpart, and together they restructured the society to balance the rights of the sexes.
By late 1788, the society’s new leader Joseph Meacham had had a revelation that Shakers should practice equality of the sexes, or gender equality.

Maiden and married names

néemaiden namemarried name
Another manifestation of the change in social attitudes is the non-automatic taking by a woman of her husband's surname on marriage.
Since 1983, when Greece adopted a new marriage law which guaranteed gender equality between the spouses, women in Greece are required to keep their birth names for their whole life.

United Nations Population Fund

UNFPAUN Population FundUnited Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
To overcome gender inequality the United Nations Population Fund states that, "Women's empowerment and gender equality requires strategic interventions at all levels of programming and policy-making. These levels include reproductive health, economic empowerment, educational empowerment and political empowerment."
UNFPA works with governments, partners and other UN agencies to directly tackle many of these goals – in particular Goal 3 on health, Goal 4 on education and Goal 5 on gender equality – and contributes in a variety of ways to achieving many of the other goals.

Female economic activity

Female economic activity is a common measure of gender equality in an economy.
Female economic activity is a common measure of gender equality in an economy.

World Conference on Women, 1995

Fourth World Conference on WomenBeijing Platform for ActionWorld Conference on Women
The importance of women having the right and possibility to have control over their body, reproduction decisions, and sexuality, and the need for gender equality in order to achieve these goals are recognized as crucial by the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing and the UN International Conference on Population and Development Program of Action.
Equality between women and men is a matter of human rights and a condition for social justice and is also a necessary and fundamental prerequisite for equality, development and peace.

UN Women

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of WomenUnited Nations WomenDivision for the Advancement of Women
UN Women recommended its abolition, and stated that: "Legislation should [...] State that divorce shall not be contingent upon the return of bride price but such provisions shall not be interpreted to limit women’s right to divorce; State that a perpetrator of domestic violence, including marital rape, cannot use the fact that he paid bride price as a defence to a domestic violence charge."
In his report, the Secretary-General resolved that, rather than relieving other parts of the United Nations system of their responsibility for contributing to the promotion of gender equality and women's empowerment, the new entity should seek to sharpen the focus and impact of the gender equality activities of the entire United Nations system.

Parental leave

maternity leavepaternity leavepaid family leave
A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive rights of women.
Parental leave policies have an impact on gender equality as it relates to parenting and are therefore used by various countries as a tool to promote gender equality.