Gender inequality

gender inequalitiesgender imbalanceinequalitygender gapsexual inequalitygenderinequalitiesgender stratificationgender-specific inequalitydifferent
Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's living experience.wikipedia
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Gender

gender issuessexgenders
Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's living experience.
Although the specific nature and degree of these differences vary from one society to the next, they still tend to typically favor men, creating an imbalance in power and gender inequalities within most societies.

Sexism

sexistgender discriminationsex discrimination
Various explanations for the remaining 25% to 40% have been suggested, including women's lower willingness and ability to negotiate salary and sexual discrimination.
Early female sociologists Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ida B. Wells, and Harriet Martineau described systems of gender inequality, but did not use the term sexism, which was coined later.

Glass ceiling

glass ceilingsglass-ceilingbamboo ceiling
The glass ceiling effect is also considered a possible contributor to the gender wage gap or income disparity.

Gender equality

gender equityequalitywomen's equality
East Asia in its turn was characterized by a high numeracy level and gender equality.
Gender inequality is measured annually by the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Reports.

Occupational inequality

inequality in the workplaceinequalities in the workplaceworkplace inequality
Statistical discrimination is also cited as a cause for income disparities and gendered inequality in the workplace.

Female genital mutilation

female genital cuttingfemale circumcisionFGM
Other key issues are adolescent births, maternal mortality, gender-based violence, child marriage, and female genital mutilation.
The practice is rooted in gender inequality, attempts to control women's sexuality, and ideas about purity, modesty and beauty.

Child marriage

child marriageschild brideearly marriage
Other key issues are adolescent births, maternal mortality, gender-based violence, child marriage, and female genital mutilation.
According to UNFPA, factors that promote and reinforce child marriage include poverty and economic survival strategies; gender inequality; sealing land or property deals or settling disputes; control over sexuality and protecting family honour; tradition and culture; and insecurity, particularly during war, famine or epidemics.

Man

menmanhoodmale
Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's living experience.

Woman

womenwomanhoodfemale
Gender inequality acknowledges that men and women are not equal and that gender affects an individual's living experience.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
Biological differences include chromosomes and hormonal differences.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Biological differences include chromosomes and hormonal differences.

Life expectancy

lifespanlife spanlife expectancies
Women, on average, live significantly longer than men, though it is not clear to what extent this is a biological difference - see Life expectancy.

Androgen

androgensandrogenicAndrogenic steroid
Men are also more likely than women to be aggressive, a trait influenced by prenatal and possibly current androgen exposure.

Division of labour

division of laborspecializationspecialised
It has been theorized that these differences combined with physical differences are an adaption representing sexual division of labor.

Testosterone

low testosterone levels due to agingmetabolismprenatal exposure to androgens
These changes are influenced by the male sex hormone testosterone, which increases visuospatial memory in both genders when administered.

Wage

wageswage ratelabor costs
These factors result in 60% to 75% difference between men's and women's average aggregate wages or salaries, depending on the source.

Salary

salariessalariedsalaried employee
These factors result in 60% to 75% difference between men's and women's average aggregate wages or salaries, depending on the source.

European Commission

EU CommissionCommissionEC
According to the European Commission direct discrimination only explains a small part of gender wage differences.

American Association of University Women

AAUWAssociation of Collegiate AlumnaeAmerican Association of University Women (AAUW)
However, multiple studies from OECD, AAUW, and the US Department of Labor have found that pay rates between males and females varied by 5–6.6% or, females earning 94 cents to every dollar earned by their male counterparts, when wages were adjusted to different individual choices made by male and female workers in college major, occupation, working hours, and maternal/parental leave.

United States Department of Labor

U.S. Department of LaborDepartment of LaborUS Department of Labor
However, multiple studies from OECD, AAUW, and the US Department of Labor have found that pay rates between males and females varied by 5–6.6% or, females earning 94 cents to every dollar earned by their male counterparts, when wages were adjusted to different individual choices made by male and female workers in college major, occupation, working hours, and maternal/parental leave.

Human capital

human capital theorycapitalhuman
Human capital theories refer to the education, knowledge, training, experience, or skill of a person which makes them potentially valuable to an employer.

Deskilling

deskilledde-skilled
The entering of women into specific occupations suggests that less competent workers have begun to be hired or that the occupation is becoming deskilled.

Occupational segregation

confined exclusively to womengender-based division of labourhighly gendered
The gendered income disparity can also be attributed in part to occupational segregation, where groups of people are distributed across occupations according to ascribed characteristics; in this case, gender.

Tertiary sector of the economy

tertiary sectorservice sectorservices
Based on the census data, women occupy the service sector jobs at higher rates than men.

Statistical discrimination (economics)

statistical discrimination
Statistical discrimination is also cited as a cause for income disparities and gendered inequality in the workplace.