Gender role

gender rolesgender stereotypesgender normsgender stereotypegendersex rolesgender relationsgender normgender stereotypingroles
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their biological or perceived sex.wikipedia
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Third gender

third sexthird-genderwaria
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of masculinity and femininity, although there are exceptions and variations.
However, the state of personally identifying as, or being identified by society as, a man, a woman, or other, is usually also defined by the individual's gender identity and gender role in the particular culture in which they live.

Femininity

femininefeminityf.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of masculinity and femininity, although there are exceptions and variations.
After the Black Death in England wiped out approximately half the population, traditional gender roles of wife and mother changed, and opportunities opened up for women in society.

Feminism

feministfeministsemancipation of women
Various groups, most notably the feminist movements, have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive or inaccurate.
Although feminist advocacy is, and has been, mainly focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims, because they believe that men are also harmed by traditional gender roles.

Girl

Girlsgirliecolleen
Gender roles are culturally specific, and while most cultures distinguish only two (boy and girl or man and woman), others recognize more.
Girls' upbringing ranges from being relatively the same as that of boys to complete sex segregation and completely different gender roles.

John Money

Gender Identity ClinicMoney, John
The term gender role was first used by John Money and colleagues in 1954, during the course of his study of intersex individuals, to describe the manners in which these individuals expressed their status as a male or female in a situation where no clear biological assignment existed.
Money introduced the terms gender identity, gender role and sexual orientation and popularised the term paraphilia.

Woman

womenwomanhoodfemale
Gender roles are culturally specific, and while most cultures distinguish only two (boy and girl or man and woman), others recognize more.
Throughout human history, traditional gender roles have often defined and limited women's activities and opportunities; many religious doctrines stipulate certain rules for women that are obligatory.

Gender identity

gender identitiesgendergender spectrum
Gender role, which refers to the cultural expectations as understood by gender classification, is not the same thing as gender identity, which refers to the internal sense of one's own gender, whether or not it aligns with categories offered by societal norms.
Barbara Newmann breaks it down into four parts: (1) understanding the concept of gender, (2) learning gender role standards and stereotypes, (3) identifying with parents, and (4) forming gender preference.

Sociology of gender

gendergender relationsGender and violence
In the sociology of gender, the process whereby an individual learns and acquires a gender role in society is termed gender socialization.
In addition, many pre-schoolers develop a firm awareness of gender stereotypes, insisting that certain activities or items of clothing are not for girls and others not for boys.

Gender

gender issuessexgenders
Because of the influence of Simone de Beauvoir's feminist works and Michel Foucault's reflections on sexuality (among others), the idea that gender was unrelated to sex gained ground during the 1980s, especially in sociology and cultural anthropology.
Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex (i.e., the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation), sex-based social structures (i.e., gender roles), or gender identity.

Sex differences in humans

gender differencessex differencesbiology of gender
There is ongoing debate as to what extent gender roles and their variations are biologically determined, and to what extent they are socially constructed.

Masculinity

masculinemasculinitiesmanliness
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of masculinity and femininity, although there are exceptions and variations.
In sociology, this labeling is known as gender assumptions and is part of socialization to meet the mores of a society.

Non-binary gender

non-binarygenderqueergenderfluid
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of masculinity and femininity, although there are exceptions and variations.
Although this category includes a broad range of identities which do not conform to traditional gender norms, scholar Finn Enke states that people who identify with any of these positions may not necessarily self-identify as transgender.

Sandra Bem

Bem, Sandra LipsitzDr. Sandra Lipsitz Bem
Dr. Sandra Lipsitz Bem is a psychologist who developed the gender schema theory, based on the combination of aspects of the social learning theory and the cognitive-development theory of sex role acquisition, to explain how individuals come to use gender as an organizing category in all aspects of their life.
Her pioneering work on gender roles, gender polarization and gender stereotypes led directly to more equal employment opportunities for women in the United States.

Boy

boysBoyhoodits derogatory racial context
Gender roles are culturally specific, and while most cultures distinguish only two (boy and girl or man and woman), others recognize more.
Some boys defy traditional gender expectations.

Bem Sex-Role Inventory

Bem Sex Role InventoryBem test
In 1971, she created the Bem Sex-Role Inventory to measure how well an individual conformed to a traditional gender role, characterizing those tested as having masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated personality.
The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) is a measure of masculinity and femininity, and is used to research gender roles.

Sociology of the family

Sociology of childhoodfamily sociologySociology of fatherhood
Gender roles can influence all kinds of behaviors, such as choice of clothing, choice of work and personal relationships, e.g., parental status (See also Sociology of fatherhood).
Research shows that class advantaged men and women use their class privilege and the flexibility it provides them in ways that support conventional gender roles.

Role

social rolerolessocial roles
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their biological or perceived sex.

Gender equality

gender equityequalitywomen's equality
Gender equality allows gender roles to become less distinct and according to Donnalyn Pompper, is the reason "men no longer own breadwinning identities and, like women, their bodies are objectified in mass media images."
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating the types of behaviors which are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their sex.

Man

menmanhoodmale
Gender roles are culturally specific, and while most cultures distinguish only two (boy and girl or man and woman), others recognize more.
The Parsons model was used to contrast and illustrate extreme positions on gender roles.

Gender pay gap

gender wage gapgender gapwage gap
The fact that most women are being allocated to occupations that pay less, is often cited as a contributor to the existing gender pay gap.
Another social factor, which is related to the aforementioned one, is the socialization of individuals to adopt specific gender roles.

Women in the workforce

women in the workplacefemale employmentfemale labor participation
While the number of women in the workforce occupying management positions is slowly increasing, women currently fill only 2.5% of the higher managerial positions in the United States.
As gender roles have followed the formation of agricultural and then industrial societies, newly developed professions and fields of occupation have been frequently inflected by gender.

Gender neutrality

gender-neutralgender neutralgender-neutral housing
Gender neutrality is the movement to end discrimination of gender altogether in society through means of gender neutral language, the end of sex segregation and other means.
Gender neutrality (adjective form: gender-neutral), also known as gender-neutralism or the gender neutrality movement, is the idea that policies, language, and other social institutions (social structures, gender roles, or gender identity) should avoid distinguishing roles according to people's sex or gender, in order to avoid discrimination arising from the impression that there are social roles for which one gender is more suited than another.

Men's movement

men's issuesmen's movementsmen's rights activists
The men's rights movement (MRM) is a part of the larger men's movement.
Taking a cue from early feminists who criticized the traditional female gender role, members of the men's liberation movement used the language of sex role theory to argue that the male gender role was similarly restrictive and damaging to men.

Drag queen

dragfemale impersonatordrag queens
Usually not included are transvestic fetishists (because it is considered to be a paraphilia rather than gender identification), and drag kings and drag queens, who are performers who cross-dress for the purpose of entertaining.
A drag queen is a person, almost always male, who uses drag clothing and makeup to imitate and often exaggerate female gender signifiers and gender roles for entertainment purposes.

Socialization

socialisationsocializingsocialized
In the sociology of gender, the process whereby an individual learns and acquires a gender role in society is termed gender socialization.
Henslin (1999:76) contends that "an important part of socialization is the learning of culturally defined gender roles."