Gene–environment interaction

gene-environment interactiongene-environment interactionsinteractiongenotype-environment interactionenvironmental factorsfunction of the environmentgene by environment interactiongene-environmentGene–environment interactionsGXE
Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or GxE or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.wikipedia
108 Related Articles

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
A norm of reaction is a graph that shows the relationship between genes and environmental factors when phenotypic differences are continuous.
Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions.

5-HTTLPR

rs25531description of where, when and how many
The most recent criticisms were spurred by Moffitt and Caspi's studies on 5-HTTLPR and stress and its influence on depression.
While often discussed as an example of gene-environment interaction, this contention is contested.

Behavioural genetics

behavioral geneticsbehavior geneticsbehavior geneticist
Biometric gene–environment interaction has particular currency in population genetics and behavioral genetics.
More formally, where P is the phenotype, g is the effect of genes, \epsilon is the effect of the environment, and is a gene by environment interaction.

Polygenic score

Genetic risk scorePolygenic risk scorepolygenic risk scores
A polygenic score is generated using the alleles associated with a trait and their respective weights based on effect and examined in combination with environmental exposure.
Once a polygenic score has been created, which explains at least a few percent of a phenotype's variance and can therefore be assumed to effectively incorporate a significant fraction of the genetic variants affecting that phenotype, it can be used in several different ways: as a lower bound to test whether heritability estimates may be biased; as a measure of genetic overlap of traits (genetic correlation), which might indicate e.g. shared genetic bases for groups of mental disorders; as a means to assess group differences in a trait such as height, or to examine changes in a trait over time due to natural selection indicative of a soft selective sweep (as e.g. for intelligence where the changes in frequency would be too small to detect on each individual hit but not on the overall polygenic score); in Mendelian randomization (assuming no pleiotropy with relevant traits); to detect & control for the presence of genetic confounds in outcomes (e.g. the correlation of schizophrenia with poverty); or to investigate gene–environment interactions and correlations.

Lancelot Hogben

Lancelot Thomas HogbenHogben, LancelotHogben
The first instance of debate occurred between Ronald Fisher and Lancelot Hogben.
Hogben's appeal to this interdependence of nature and nurture marked the first time gene-environment interaction (or 'gene-environment interplay') was used to undermine statistical attempts to partition the contributions of nature and nurture, as well as the eugenic implications drawn from those statistics.

Nature versus nurture

nature and nurturenurturenature vs. nurture
Nature versus nurture debates assume that variation in a trait is primarily due to either genetic differences or environmental differences.
The interactions of genes with environment, called gene–environment interactions, are another component of the nature–nurture debate.

Exposome

These other factors include the diet and specific nutrients within the diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use, sleep (bed time, duration), and any of a number of exposures (or exposome), including toxins, pollutants, sunlight (latitude north/south of the equator), among any number of others.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has invested in technologies supporting exposome-related research including biosensors, and supports research on gene-environment interactions.

Evolutionary developmental psychology

CriticismDomain-specificity vs. domain-generality in evolutionary developmental psychology
It involves the study of both the genetic and environmental mechanisms that underlie the development of social and cognitive competencies, as well as the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions.

Envirome

Enviromics
The two main ways genes and environment may interact is through genotype-environment correlation and interaction.

Differential susceptibility hypothesis

Differential susceptibilitydifferential susceptibility theory
Further, environment and susceptibility factor must also be unrelated to exclude the alternative explanation that susceptibility merely represents a function of the environment.

Gene–environment correlation

Gene-environment correlationgene environment correlationgenotype-environment correlation
Both of these studies also found evidence for gene–environment interaction.

Genotype

genotypesgenotypicgenotypically
Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or GxE or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.

Reaction norm

Norms of reactionNorm of reactionreaction norms
A norm of reaction is a graph that shows the relationship between genes and environmental factors when phenotypic differences are continuous.

Environmental factor

environmental factorsecological factorenvironmental
A norm of reaction is a graph that shows the relationship between genes and environmental factors when phenotypic differences are continuous.

Genetic epidemiology

genetic epidemiologistgenetic epidemiologicalgenetic factor
In genetic epidemiology, gene–environment interactions are useful for understanding some diseases.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
In genetic epidemiology, gene–environment interactions are useful for understanding some diseases.

Risk factor

risk factorsdeterminantsacute health hazard
Sometimes, sensitivity to environmental risk factors for a disease are inherited rather than the disease itself being inherited.

Skin cancer

non-melanoma skin cancerskinskin neoplasm
For example, sunlight exposure has a stronger influence on skin cancer risk in fair-skinned humans than in individuals with darker skin.

Human skin color

skin colorskin pigmentationskin tone
For example, sunlight exposure has a stronger influence on skin cancer risk in fair-skinned humans than in individuals with darker skin.

Developmental psychobiology

developmental psychobiologistdevelopmental psychobiologistsLinda P. Spear
The term is also used amongst developmental psychobiologists to better understand individual and evolutionary development.

Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
Statistical analysis of the genetic and environmental differences contributing to the phenotype would have to be used to confirm these as gene–environment interactions.

Ronald Fisher

R.A. FisherR. A. FisherFisher
The first instance of debate occurred between Ronald Fisher and Lancelot Hogben.

Arthur Jensen

Arthur R. JensenJensenArthur Robert Jensen
Arthur Jensen published the study “How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement?”, which amongst much criticism also faced contention by scientists Richard Lewontin and David Layzer.

How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement?

a controversial paper published in 1969long article
Arthur Jensen published the study “How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement?”, which amongst much criticism also faced contention by scientists Richard Lewontin and David Layzer.