Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpressoverexpressionexpression of genesexpression systemoverexpressedexpressesprotein expressiongenetic expression
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.wikipedia
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Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA.

Gene product

gene productsproduct of a gene product
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA.
Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals.

Translation (biology)

translationtranslatedprotein translation
Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein.
The entire process is called gene expression.

Cellular differentiation

differentiationcell differentiationdifferentiate
Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism.
These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of epigenetics.

Regulation of gene expression

gene regulationregulationregulatory
Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism.
Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources.

Phenotype

phenotypicphenotypesphenotypically
In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait.
An organism's phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism's genetic code, or its genotype, and the influence of environmental factors.

Alternative splicing

alternatively splicedtranscript variantssplice variant
This so-called alternative splicing creates series of different transcripts originating from a single gene.
Alternative splicing, or alternative RNA splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism.
All cells (except red blood cells which lack a cell nucleus and most organelles to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin) possess DNA, the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymes, the cell's primary machinery.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Such phenotypes are often expressed by the synthesis of proteins that control the organism's shape, or that act as enzymes catalysing specific metabolic pathways characterising the organism.
Some of the enzymes showing the highest specificity and accuracy are involved in the copying and expression of the genome.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype.
One proposal is that antisense RNAs are involved in regulating gene expression through RNA-RNA base pairing.

Prokaryote

prokaryoticprokaryotesprokaryotic cells
The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life.
Cells in biofilms often show distinct patterns of gene expression (phenotypic differentiation) in time and space.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
The process of gene expression is used by all known life—eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and utilized by viruses—to generate the macromolecular machinery for life.
The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to a stress response state and there is increased expression of genes involved in DNA repair, antioxidant metabolism and nutrient transport.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
In eukaryotes most mature RNA must be exported to the cytoplasm from the nucleus.
The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
In genetics, gene expression is the most fundamental level at which the genotype gives rise to the phenotype, i.e. observable trait.
Genes generally express their functional effect through the production of proteins, which are complex molecules responsible for most functions in the cell.

RNA polymerase

DNA-dependent RNA polymeraseRNAPRNA polymerases
The production of the RNA copy of the DNA is called transcription, and is performed in the nucleus by RNA polymerase, which adds one RNA nucleotide at a time to a growing RNA strand as per the complementarity law of the bases.
Control of the process of gene transcription affects patterns of gene expression and, thereby, allows a cell to adapt to a changing environment, perform specialized roles within an organism, and maintain basic metabolic processes necessary for survival.

Housekeeping gene

housekeepingDNA housekeepinghousekeeping functions
In molecular biology, housekeeping genes are typically constitutive genes that are required for the maintenance of basic cellular function, and are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism.
All cells possess DNA, the hereditary material of genes, and RNA, containing the information necessary to build various proteins such as enzymes, the cell's primary machinery.

RNA-induced silencing complex

RISCRISC complexRNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)
After being exported, it is then processed to mature miRNAs in the cytoplasm by interaction with the endonuclease Dicer, which also initiates the formation of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), composed of the Argonaute protein.
Drosophila S2 cells were transfected with a lacZ expression vector to quantify gene expression with β-galactosidase activity.

Actin

F-actinG-actinactin cytoskeleton
Lastly, actin plays an important role in the control of gene expression.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Not all proteins remain within the cell and many are exported, for example, digestive enzymes, hormones and extracellular matrix proteins.
When a hormone binds to the receptor, it results in the activation of a signal transduction pathway that typically activates gene transcription, resulting in increased expression of target proteins; non-genomic effects are more rapid, and can be synergistic with genomic effects.

Non-coding RNA

RNAncRNAnon-coding RNAs
In most organisms non-coding genes (ncRNA) are transcribed as precursors that undergo further processing.
The expression of many thousands of genes are regulated by ncRNAs.

Dicer

Dicer ribonucleaseDICER1Dicer complex
After being exported, it is then processed to mature miRNAs in the cytoplasm by interaction with the endonuclease Dicer, which also initiates the formation of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), composed of the Argonaute protein.
RNA interference is a process where the breakdown of RNA molecules into miRNA inhibits gene expression of specific host mRNA sequences.

Epigenetics

epigeneticepigeneticallyepigenetic regulation
These effects are referred to as epigenetic and involve the higher order structure of DNA, non-sequence specific DNA binding proteins and chemical modification of DNA.
Epigenetics most often involves changes that affect gene activity and expression, but the term can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change.

Chromatin

chromatin structuresex chromatinnuclear chromatin
In eukaryotes the structure of chromatin, controlled by the histone code, regulates access to DNA with significant impacts on the expression of genes in euchromatin and heterochromatin areas.
Its primary function is packaging very long DNA molecules into a more compact, denser shape, which prevents the strands from becoming tangled and plays important roles in reinforcing the DNA during cell division, preventing DNA damage, and regulating gene expression and DNA replication.