Genealogical DNA test

DNA testautosomal DNADNA testinggenealogical DNA testingDNApersonal DNA (genetic) testing.Y-DNA testinganalysedautosomalautosomal DNA test
A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome, in order to find or verify ancestral genealogical relationships or (with lower reliability) to estimate the ethnic mixture of an individual.wikipedia
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Bennett Greenspan

In 2000, Family Tree DNA, founded by Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld, was the first company dedicated to direct-to-consumer testing for genealogy research.
Greenspan founded Family Tree DNA which was the first American company to offer genealogical DNA testing directly to the general public.

GEDmatch

genetic databasegenetic genealogy
Many transferred their test result for free to multiple testing sites, and also to genealogical services such as Geni.com and GEDmatch.
GEDmatch users could upload their autosomal DNA test data from commercial DNA companies, with or without a GEDCOM file, to identify potential relatives who had also uploaded their profiles.

Ancestry.com

RootsWebNewspapers.comRootsWeb.com
Later, GeneTree returned to genetic testing for genealogy in conjunction with the Sorenson parent company and eventually was part of the assets acquired in the Ancestry.com buyout of SMGF in 2012.
As of November 2018, the company claimed to provide access to approximately 10 billion historical records, to have 3 million paying subscribers, and to have sold 14 million DNA kits to customers.

Genealogy

genealogistgenealogicalfamily history
A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome, in order to find or verify ancestral genealogical relationships or (with lower reliability) to estimate the ethnic mixture of an individual.
A genealogical DNA test allows two individuals to find the probability that they are, or are not, related within an estimated number of generations.

Genetic testing

DNA testingDNA analysisDNA test
In 2007, 23andMe was the first company to offer a saliva-based direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

Surname DNA project

surname projectsurname study groups
A surname project is where many individuals whose Y-chromosomes match collaborate to find their common ancestry.
A surname DNA project is a genetic genealogy project which uses genealogical DNA tests to trace male lineage.

23andMe

23 and MeDNA tests
In 2007, 23andMe was the first company to offer a saliva-based direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
Customers who bought tests with an ancestry-related component have online access to genealogical DNA test results and tools, including a relative-matching database.

Family Tree DNA

FamilyTreeDNAFTDNAFamilyTree DNA
In 2000, Family Tree DNA, founded by Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld, was the first company dedicated to direct-to-consumer testing for genealogy research.

Y-STR

YsearchList of Y-chromosome databasesSTRs
Most common is STRs (short tandem repeat).
Y-STRs are often used in forensics, paternity, and genealogical DNA testing.

GeneTree

The first company to provide direct-to-consumer genetic DNA testing was the now defunct GeneTree.

MyHeritage

Family Tree Builder
MyHeritage launched its genetic testing service in 2016, allowing users to use cheek swabs to collect samples.
The results provide DNA matching and ethnicity estimates.

Haplogroup

haplogroupssubcladespaternal
Based on MtDNA and Y-DNA, a person's haplogroup(s) can be identified.

Melungeon

Melungeonstri-racialtri-racial isolates
Melungeons are one of numerous multiracial groups in the United States with origins wrapped in myth.
Estes et al., in their 2012 summary of the Melungeon Core DNA Testing Program, stated that the Riddle family is the only Melungeon participant with historical records identifying them as having Native American origins, but their DNA is European.

Hypervariable region

HVR1hypervariable regionshypervariable control region
They are the coding region (00577-16023) and two Hyper Variable Regions (HVR1 [16024-16569], and HVR2 [00001-00576]).
There are two mitochondrial hypervariable regions used in human mitochondrial genealogical DNA testing.

Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genome
Mitochondrial DNA is transmitted from mother to child, thus a direct maternal ancestor can be traced using mtDNA.
(Y-chromosomal DNA, paternally inherited, is used in an analogous way to determine the patrilineal history.) This is usually accomplished on human mitochondrial DNA by sequencing the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2), and sometimes the complete molecule of the mitochondrial DNA, as a genealogical DNA test.

Most recent common ancestor

last common ancestorcommon ancestorrecent common ancestor
A man's test results are compared to another man's results to determine the time frame in which the two individuals shared a most recent common ancestor, or MRCA, in their direct patrilineal lines.
Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam have been established by researchers using genealogical DNA tests.

Living DNA

Living DNA, founded in 2015, also provides a genetic testing service.

Cambridge Reference Sequence

CRS
Instead, results are normally compared to the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), which is the mitochondria of a European who was the first person to have their mtDNA published in 1981 (and revised in 1999).
When mitochondrial DNA sequencing is used for genealogical purposes, the results are often reported as differences from the revised CRS.

Mitochondrial Eve

African Evemost recent common ancestormt-MRCA
All humans descend in the direct female line from Mitochondrial Eve, a female who lived probably around 200,000 years ago in Africa.

Genetic genealogy

genetic ancestryGeneticgenetic genealogist
Genetic genealogy is the use of Genealogical DNA tests, i.e. DNA profiling and DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods, to infer biological relationships between individuals.

List of Y-STR markers

markerDYS391DYS455
For example, a correlation exists between a lack of Y-DNA marker DYS464 and infertility, and between mtDNA haplogroup H and protection from sepsis.
The following list of Y-STR markers are commonly used in forensic and genealogical DNA testing.

Y-chromosomal Adam

Homo Y-MRCAPatrilinealScientific Adam
All human men descend in the paternal line from a single man dubbed Y-chromosomal Adam, who lived probably between 200,000 and 400,000 years ago.

Y chromosome

Y-chromosomeY-DNAY
A man's patrilineal ancestry, or male-line ancestry, can be traced using the DNA on his Y chromosome (Y-DNA), because the Y-chromosome is transmitted father to son nearly unchanged.

List of DNA-tested mummies

List of DNA tested mummiesDNA
This is a purported list of ancient humans remains, including mummies, that may have been DNA tested. Provided as evidence of the testing are links to the mitochondrial DNA sequences, and/or to the human haplogroups to which each case has been assigned.

International Society of Genetic Genealogy

ISOGGThe International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG)
It was founded by a group of surname DNA project administrators in 2005 to promote DNA testing for genealogy.