General circulation model

global climate modelglobal climate modelsGCMclimate modelGCMsclimate modelsgeneral circulation modelscomputer modelcomputer modelsEarth's respiration
A general circulation model (GCM) is a type of climate model.wikipedia
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Ocean general circulation model

ocean circulation modelOGCMnumerical modelling
Atmospheric and oceanic GCMs (AGCM and OGCM) are key components along with sea ice and land-surface components.
Ocean general circulation models (OGCMs) are a particular kind of general circulation model to describe physical and thermodynamical processes in oceans.

Climate model

climate modelsclimate modellingclimate modeling
A general circulation model (GCM) is a type of climate model.
Finally, (coupled) atmosphere–ocean–sea ice global climate models solve the full equations for mass and energy transfer and radiant exchange.

Climate change

climatic changeclimatechanging climate
GCMs and global climate models are used for weather forecasting, understanding the climate and forecasting climate change.
General circulation models, based on the physical sciences, are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate data, make future projections, and link causes and effects in climate change.

HadCM3

Later the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research's HadCM3 model coupled ocean-atmosphere elements. AOGCMs (e.g. HadCM3, GFDL CM2.X) combine the two submodels. Coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs (AOGCMs, e.g. HadCM3, EdGCM, GFDL CM2.X, ARPEGE-Climat ) combine the two models.
HadCM3 (abbreviation for Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3) is a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) developed at the Hadley Centre in the United Kingdom.

Chemical transport model

chemistry transport model
A recent trend in GCMs is to apply them as components of Earth system models, e.g. by coupling ice sheet models for the dynamics of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, and one or more chemical transport models (CTMs) for species important to climate.
While related general circulation models (GCMs) focus on simulating overall atmospheric dynamics (e.g. fluid and heat flows), a CTM instead focuses on the stocks and flows of one or more chemical species.

Primitive equations

hydrostatic primitive equationsLaplace's tidal equationsmomentum equation
Examples are programs that solve the primitive equations, given energy input and energy dissipation in the form of scale-dependent friction, so that atmospheric waves with the highest wavenumbers are most attenuated.
The primitive equations are a set of nonlinear differential equations that are used to approximate global atmospheric flow and are used in most atmospheric models.

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model

AOGCMs (e.g. HadCM3, GFDL CM2.X) combine the two submodels. Coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs (AOGCMs, e.g. HadCM3, EdGCM, GFDL CM2.X, ARPEGE-Climat ) combine the two models.
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model (GFDL CM2.5) is a coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) developed at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in the United States.

Sea ice

ice floesicepack ice
Atmospheric and oceanic GCMs (AGCM and OGCM) are key components along with sea ice and land-surface components.
Many global climate models (GCMs) have sea ice implemented in their numerical simulation scheme in order to capture the Ice-albedo feedback correctly.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)International Panel on Climate Change
Climate prediction uncertainties depend on uncertainties in chemical, physical and social models (see IPCC scenarios below).
For example, Lindzen states that the SPM understates the uncertainty associated with climate models.

Special Report on Emissions Scenarios

SRESEmissions Scenariosemissions pathways
These can be idealised scenarios (most commonly, CO 2 emissions increasing at 1%/yr) or based on recent history (usually the "IS92a" or more recently the SRES scenarios).
The greenhouse gas emissions scenarios described in the Report have been used to make projections of possible future climate change.

Climate

climaticclimate systemclimates
GCMs and global climate models are used for weather forecasting, understanding the climate and forecasting climate change.
finally, (coupled) atmosphere–ocean–sea ice global climate models discretise and solve the full equations for mass and energy transfer and radiant exchange.

Syukuro Manabe

Dr. Syukuro Manabe
Versions designed for decade to century time scale climate applications were originally created by Syukuro Manabe and Kirk Bryan at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) in Princeton, New Jersey.
Manabe and Bryan's work in the development of the first global climate models has been selected as one of the Top Ten Breakthroughs to have occurred in NOAA's first 200 years.

Transient climate simulation

Transient Coupled Model
Coupled AOGCMs use transient climate simulations to project/predict climate changes under various scenarios.
A transient climate simulation is a mode of running a global climate model (GCM) in which a period of time (typically 1850–2100) is simulated with continuously-varying concentrations of greenhouse gases so that the climate of the model represents a realistic mode of possible change in the real world.

Numerical weather prediction

forecast modelsweather modelscomputer models
The global climate models used for climate projections are similar in structure to (and often share computer code with) numerical models for weather prediction, but are nonetheless logically distinct.
Following Phillips' work, several groups began working to create general circulation models.

EdGCM

Coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs (AOGCMs, e.g. HadCM3, EdGCM, GFDL CM2.X, ARPEGE-Climat ) combine the two models.
The Educational Global Climate Model or EdGCM is a fully functional global climate model (GCM) that has been ported for use on desktop computers (Windows PCs and Macs).

Earth Simulator

NEC Earth Simulator
Earth Simulator
The Earth Simulator (ES), developed by the Japanese government's initiative "Earth Simulator Project", was a highly parallel vector supercomputer system for running global climate models to evaluate the effects of global warming and problems in solid earth geophysics.

Intermediate General Circulation Model

Intermediate General Circulation Model
The Reading Intermediate General Circulation Model (IGCM), is a simplified or "intermediate" Global climate model, which is developed by members of the Department of Meteorology at the University of Reading, and by members of the Stratospheric Dynamics and Chemistry Group of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at McGill University.

Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

AMIP
Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP)
Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is a standard experimental protocol for global atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs).

Community Climate System Model

CCM4Climate System Model (CSM)
NCAR/UCAR Community Climate System Model (CESM)
The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a coupled global climate model (GCM) developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Energy (DoE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Gaussian grid

spectral model
Spectral models generally use a gaussian grid, because of the mathematics of transformation between spectral and grid-point space.
CCCma global climate models of climate change

IPCC Third Assessment Report

Third Assessment ReportThirdTAR
The 2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report F igure 9.3 shows the global mean response of 19 different coupled models to an idealised experiment in which emissions increased at 1% per year.
Observed warming of the Earth's surface, attribution of observed warming to human activities, projected increases in future global mean temperature, rising sea levels, and increased frequency of heat waves.

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report

Fifth Assessment ReportAR5Fifth Assessment Report (AR5)
The IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report asserted "...very high confidence that models reproduce the general features of the global-scale annual mean surface temperature increase over the historical period."
AR5 relies on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), an international effort among the climate modeling community to coordinate climate change experiments.

Process study

process studiesstudy of atmospheric processes
Most models include software to diagnose a wide range of variables for comparison with observations or study of atmospheric processes.
An example for a parametrized phenomenon are thunderstorms which cannot be simulated within a circulation model if the spatial resolution of several km is too coarse to resolve single storm cell.

Mathematical model

modelmathematical modelingmathematical models
It employs a mathematical model of the general circulation of a planetary atmosphere or ocean.